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Related to Kyzylkum: Syr Darya
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Turkic, “red sands”), a sandy desert between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, in the Uzbek and Kazakh SSR’s and partly in the Turkmen SSR. The desert is bounded in the northwest by the Aral Sea, in the northeast by the Syr Darya, in the east by the spurs of the Tien-Shan and Pamir-Alai mountains, and in the southwest by the Amu Darya. It has an area of 300,000 sq km.

The Kyzylkum is a plain sloping to the northwest with elevations ranging from 300 m in the southeast to 53 m in the northwest. It has a number of closed depressions and isolated, dissected monadnocks—Bukantau (764 m), Kul’dzhuktau (to 785 m), Tamdytau (922 m)—composed of highly dislocated and metamorphosed Paleozoic schists, hornfels, limestones, and granites. Desert conditions prevail in the mountains, and most have leveled peaks and rocky, strongly dissected slopes. The greater part of the Kyzylkum is occupied by ridges of semifixed sand, usually having a meridional orientation. Relative elevation of the ridges varies from 3 to 30 m; the highest point is 75 m. The desert’s level areas are composed of Cenozoic clays and sandstones, and, in the north and northwest, of sandy loam river deposits from the Zhandar’ia and other ancient channels of the Syr Darya and from the Akchadar’ia, an ancient channel of the Amu Darya, all flowing into the southeast corner of the Aral Sea. There are many takyrs in the northwest.

The climate is continental. Summers are hot, with average July temperatures of 26°-29°C; in January the average temperature is 0° to — 9°C. Precipitation totals 100–200 mm per year, falling mainly in winter and spring.

Although the desert has no surface streams, there are abundant reserves of fresh underground water. Most of the desert lies in the middle subzone of the temperate zone deserts; in the south it borders on subtropical deserts. Soils are gray-brown and sandy, and solonets and solonchak are also found.

The vegetation cover is rich in ephemerals. Sand sedge, white saxaul, Ammodendron conollyi, and Salsola richteri are common on the sand ridges, and wormwood grows on the clayey hills. Thickets of Anabasis salsa and saltworts are found in the northwest, and in the valleys of dry riverbeds are black saxaul woodlands. The desert is inhabited by animals adapted to living without watering places, getting all or most of their water from their food. To decrease their need for water, many of them are nocturnal. The mammals are represented by the Persian gazelle, long-clawed suslik, large-toothed suslik, gerbil, jerboa, sand and steppe cats, wolves, corsac fox, and Cape hare. Birds include the crested lark, desert warbler, houbara bustard, and saxaul jay. There are also snakes (saw-scaled viper, levantine viper, sand boa, and arrow snake), lizards, and Horsfield’s terrapin.

The economy is based on a growing mining industry and livestock raising, mainly fine-fleeced and karakul sheep. In the central and western parts of the desert large artesian basins have been discovered and are being exploited in many areas. As a result of irrigation many small oases have been created, which are the centers for livestock farms. In the monadnocks, marble, graphite, and turquoise are extracted, and the Muryntau gold deposit is being worked. In the southern desert one of the USSR’s largest deposits of gas, Gazli, is being exploited. Several highways cross the Kyzylkum, and in the middle is the raion administrative center of Tamdybulak.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Just basing on these fields the Kyzylkum's phosphorite plant appeared.
But Kyzylkum's phosphate rock, along with a high degree of carbonation is characterized with thin intergrowth of phosphate minerals with calcite, therefore attempts of flotation enrichment were not successful (Amirova, 1983; Boiko, 1980; Kuzovlev, Maltsev, and Pugach, 1981).
Anyway the Kyzylkum's phosphorite plant found the most optimal method of ore's enrichment including its washing to chloride ions withdrawal, than burning for carbonates decomposition with C[O.sub.2] removal.
The Kyzylkum's phosphorite plant's products are consumed with following local customers: the thermoconcentrate - with O]SC "Ammofos-Maxam" (Almalyq city) for production of highly concentrated nitro-phosphorus fertilizers: ammonium phosphate (10% N.
While the proceedings before the Court were held behind closed doors and only limited information has been made available, Uranium One understands that the ruling was made orally in proceedings brought by the State Prosecutor of the Saryark District of the City of Astana against Betpak Dala, Kyzylkum and Kazatomprom, among other parties, and relates to events which occurred two to three years before Uranium One acquired its interest in the two joint ventures.
While those discussions are underway, and in order to mitigate the impact on the Company's interests, Kazatomprom, Betpak Dala and Kyzylkum are putting in place temporary arrangements designed to ensure that, notwithstanding the court order, Betpak Dala and Kyzylkum carry on normal business operations and the rate of return to the Company from existing operations is unaffected during this period.
For conducting experiments ammonium nitrate of OJSC "MAKSAMCHIRCHIK" (34.6%N) production and different types of Central Kyzylkum phosphorites were used: ordinary phosphate powder (17.20% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]; 46.22% CaO; 16.0% C[O.sub.2] [P.sub.2][O.sub.5 acceptable]: [P.sub.2][O.sub.5total] = l8.48), dust fraction (18.54% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]; 44.72% CaO; 14.80% C[O.sub.2]; [P.sub.2][O.sub.5 acceptable]: [P.sub.2][O.sub.5total] = 20.71%), washed and dried concentrate (18.22% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]; 47.28% CaO; 14.9% C[O.sub.2]; [P.sub.2][O.sub.5 acceptable]: [P.sub.2][O.sub.5total]=17.8%) and mineralized mass (14.68% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]; 47.28% CaO; 14.91% C[O.sub.2]; [P.sub.2][O.sub.5 acceptable]: [P.sub.2][O.sub.5totai]=16.41%).
Identified characteristics (solidity, bulk weight, porosity and deterioration) of NPF granules were obtained from ammonium nitrate melt and Central Kyzylkum phosphate powder.
Technological diagram for NPF obtaining on the base ammonium nitrate melt and Central Kyzylkum phosphorites consisted of the following stages:
Stirring of the melt with raw phosphate of central Kyzylkum;