L'Hôpital, Michel de

L'Hôpital or L'Hospital, Michel de

(both: mēshĕl` də lōpētäl`), c.1505–1573, chancellor of France under Catherine de' MediciCatherine de' Medici
, 1519–89, queen of France, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino. She was married (1533) to the duc d'Orléans, later King Henry II.
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. He was Catherine's chief collaborator in the policy of religious toleration that she followed during most of her early administration. He favored, although he did not originate, the Edict of Romorantin (1560), which deprived the secular courts of jurisdiction in cases involving religion, and he was responsible for the edicts granting liberty of conscience (1561) and restricted liberty of worship (1562). He withdrew from court during the first War of Religion (1562–63; see Religion, Wars ofReligion, Wars of,
1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).
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), but subsequently returned to power and in 1566 was the author of important judicial reforms. After the outbreak (1567) of the second War of Religion he was forced out of office (1568) by Charles and Henri de GuiseGuise
, influential ducal family of France. The First Duke of Guise

The family was founded as a cadet branch of the ruling house of Lorraine by Claude de Lorraine, 1st duc de Guise, 1496–1550, who received the French fiefs of his father, René II, duke
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. In his retirement he composed Latin poetry.
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