Carnitine

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Related to L-carnitine: taurine, acetyl l-carnitine, L-arginine

carnitine

[′kär·nə‚tēn]
(biochemistry)
C7H15NO3α-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid trimethylbetaine; a constituent of striated muscle and liver, identical with vitamin B T.

Carnitine

 

betaine-γ-amino-β-oxybutyric acid, (CH3)3NCH2CH(OH)CH2CO2, a crystalline compound with basic properties; dissolves readily in water and alcohol. Its molecular mass is 161.21, and its melting point, 195°-197°C (with decomposition).

Carnitine is primarily found in animal muscle, from which it was first extracted by V. S. Gulevich (1905); it is also found in bacteria and plants. It takes part in fatty exchange within an organism by acting as a carrier of fatty acid radicals through the membranes of the mitochondria. These membranes are impermeable to activated fatty acids (compounds with coenzyme A). With the aid of carnitine, therefore, fatty acids enter the scope of activity of the oxidizing enzymes localized within the mitochondria. Carnitine apparently also participates in the reverse transport of fatty acids. It is an essential dietary constituent and a growth factor in certain insects; therefore it is considered to be a vitamin (vitamin BT).

References in periodicals archive ?
2] increased significantly at 80% of maximal heart rate after L-carnitine supplementation in both athletic and sedentary men, whereas, a statistical increase in VT and RT occurred only after L-carnitine use in athletes, when compared to the control and placebo subjects.
It has been shown in rodents that organic osmolytes such as L-carnitine, glycerophosphocholine, D-glutamate and myo-inositol are present in millimolar concentrations, which are 1,000 times higher than the blood.
L-Carnitine and betaine contents in meat samples were determined by the method of Li et al.
sup][32] L-carnitine may also be transformed to a-butyrobetaine by gut bacteria before being converted to TMA and TMAO.
In mammals, L-carnitine is synthesized primarily in the liver, kidney and in some species, in the testes and the brain, from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine.
Keene, BW L-Carnitine Supplementation in the Therapy of Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
Taking ICH guidelines into consideration, the present study describes a simple, validated, and stability-indicating analytical method for determination of L-carnitine in tablets.
However, these cells are suitably protected against OS process because of immersion in sperm fluid containing many antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, urate, Turin, sulfhydryl (thiol) groups, catalases, superoxide dismutase and L-carnitine.
These deceptive media headlines have generated concern that supplemental forms of L-carnitine may be detrimental to heart health.
A meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials published April 15, 2013 online in Mayo Clinic Proceedings found that treatment with L-carnitine significantly reduced arrhythmias, chest pain and deaths from any cause.
14) Sperm stimulators such as Pentoxifylline (PF) and L-carnitine (LC) are ROS scavengers.