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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Applicability of zinc complex of L-carnosine for medical use.
Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent.
Yamaguchi, "Acceleration of metabolism of stress-related substances by L-carnosine," Journal of the Physiological Society of Japan, vol.
In 2006, Babizhayev reported that the L-carnosine-related peptidomimetic N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) can act as a timed-release (carrier) stable version of L-carnosine in cosmetic preparations, including lubricants.
L-carnosine and ALA are powerful micronutrients with various biological functions and are often used as health supplements (Kim et al., 2011).
Braun et al., "L-carnosine, a substrate of carnosinase-1, influences glucose metabolism," Diabetes, vol.
N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eyedrops possess all-in-one universal antioxidant protective effects of L-carnosine in aqueous and lipid membrane environments, aldehyde scavenging, and transglycation activities inherent to cataracts: a clinical study of the new vision-saving drug N-acetylcarnosine eyedrop therapy in a database population of over 50,500 patients.
L-Carnosine is marketed as a prodrug in the form of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) eye drops (1%).
Fifty patients (mean age, 62 years) with stable heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III) and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 45% or less on optimal medical therapy were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg per day of L-carnosine or no L-carnosine (control group) for 6 months.
Chemicals for HPLC analysis were obtained as follows: standard L-carnosine (99% purity) solution from Sigma Inc.
L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts.
Kinetic, pharmacological and activity-dependent separation of therapeutic targeting: transcorneal penetration and delivery of L-carnosine in the aqueous humor and hormone-like hypothalamic antiaging effects of the instilled ophthalmic drug through a safe eye medication technique," Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation, vol.