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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Acceleration of metabolism of stress-related substances by L-carnosine.
A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnosine to improve cognition in schizophrenia.
Comment: L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) occurs naturally in the body.
Addition of L-carnosine in cardioplegic solution during stopped heart operations allows increasing the operation duration severalfold without signs of necrotic damage of tissues of the heart in the operative field [45].
4,6) L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is the synthetic version identical to the natural form alpha-alanyl-L-histidine.
L-carnosine ([beta]-alanyl-L-histidine, LC) is a dipeptide made up of [beta]-alanine and L-histidine, which is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues of animals.
Identification and characterization of a mouse dipeptidase that hydrolyzes L-carnosine.
L-Carnosine - Protects from oxidation and free radical damage.
Zinc L-carnosine protects against mucosal injury in portal hypertensive gastropathy through induction of heat shock protein 72.
A newly formulated combination of zinc and L-carnosine (a combination of two amino acids) does all of these.
L-Carnosine is marketed as a prodrug in the form of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) eye drops (1%).