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C9H14N4O3 A colorless, crystalline dipeptide occurring in the muscle tissue of vertebrates.



C9H14O3N4, a dipeptide (/3-alanyl histidine), composed of the amino acids of /3-alanine and L-histidine. Discovered by G. S. Gulevich in 1900 in a meat extract. Molecular weight, 226. It crystallizes into colorless needles that are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. It is found in the skeletal musculature of most vertebrates.

Carnosine and its constituent amino acids are absent in certain species of fish (only L-histidine or /3-alanine is present); it does not occur in the muscle of invertebrates. The carnosine content in the muscle of vertebrates usually varies from 200 to 400 mg percent raw muscle weight, depending on the muscular structure and function; in the human body it ranges between 100 and 150 mg percent.

Carnosine has diverse effects on the biochemical processes that occur in skeletal muscles; however, its biological role has not been definitively established. The addition of carnosine to a solution bathing the muscle of the isolated neuromyal specimen causes restoration of contractions of the fatigued muscle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial.
L-carnosine and ALA are powerful micronutrients with various biological functions and are often used as health supplements (Kim et al.
Comment: L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is present in high concentrations in myocardial and muscle tissue.
Possible role of L-carnosine in the regulation of blood glucose through controlling autonomic nerves.
Seventy-nine patients (mean age, 67 years) with cirrhosis of the liver were randomly assigned to receive 225 mg per day of polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex; providing daily 51 mg of zinc and 174 mg of L-carnosine) in addition to standard therapy (protein-restricted diet, branched-chain amino acids, and lactulose) or standard therapy alone (control group) for 6 months.
We have confirmed and extended previous results on the beneficial effects of L-carnosine on growth, morphology, and longevity of cultured human fibroblasts, strains MRC-5 and HFF-1.
In addition to CellEffect technology, Creme LuXury revitalizes the skin with ingredients, such as exclusive NUTRILITE Spinach Extract, L-Carnosine and Roxisomes.
Much research has centered on variations of the antioxidant L-carnosine in an eye drop solution.
Effects of L-carnosine on renal sympathetic nerve activity and DOCA-salt hypertension in rats.
Japan-based Hamari Chemicals has received kosher certification from the Kosher Certification Service (KCS) for its entire nutritional ingredient line, including PepZinGI brand zinc-L-carnosine, Carno-Life L-carnosine and BenfoPure benfotiamine.
He and his colleagues observed L-carnosine levels are "markedly" higher in a transparent lens compared to one with mature cataracts: about 25 [mu]M in transparent lenses and about 5 [mu]M in those with mature cataracts.
Studies done by Nutrilite laboratories also show that this formula is significantly more effective than the two separate compounds, zinc and L-carnosine, taken together.