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see TverTver
, formerly Kalinin
, city (1989 pop. 451,000), capital of Tver region, central European Russia, at the confluence of the Volga and Tver rivers. A major port on the upper Volga, it is linked with Moscow by the Moscow Canal.
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, Russia.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(until 1931, Tver’), administrative center of Kalinin Oblast, RSFSR. River port on the Volga at its confluence with the Tvertsa River. Railroad station on the Moscow-Leningrad line, 167 km northwest of Moscow. Population, 367, 000 (1972; in 1939, 216, 000; in 1959, 261,000). Renamed in honor of M. I. Kalinin.

Tver’ took shape in the 12th century from trade and handicrafts settlements on the Volga at the mouth of the Tvertsa River, from which the city derived its name. It is first mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle for 1208–09. At first it belonged to Novgorod, but in 1209 it became part of the Vladimir-Suzdal’ Principality. From 1246 to 1485 it was the capital of the Tver’ Principality. In 1327 there was a major uprising against Mongol Tatar rule. In the 14th and 15th centuries it was an important economic and cultural center of northeastern Rus’, with well-developed handicraft production and commercial ties with the Baltic region, the Caucasus, the Middle East, and Middle Asia. From 1466 to 1472 the Tver’ merchant Afanasii Nikitin was the first European to travel to India. In 1485, under Grand Prince Ivan III, Tver’ became part of the Muscovite State. In the 18th century it played an important role as a trading center on the upper Volga. In 1775 it became the capital of Tver’ Province. The textile industry began to develop in Tver’ in the mid-19th century.

The first Social Democratic study circle was founded in Tver’ by A. G. Kugusheva in 1894. A Social Democratic group was formed in early 1901 and became the Tver’ Committee of the RSDLP in 1902. In 1905 the workers of Tver’ took part in the October All-Russian Strike, established a soviet of working people’s deputies, and sent a contingent of armed workers to aid the Moscow workers during the December Armed Uprising. Soviet power was established in Tver’ on Oct. 28 (Nov. 10), 1917. During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the city was occupied by the fascist German invaders from Oct. 17 to Dec. 16, 1941, and suffered great destruction; it was completely restored in the early postwar years. Kalinin was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1971.


Kalinin is a major industrial center, producing two-fifths of the industrial output of the oblast, primarily in light industry, the chemical industry, and machine building. The major enterprises in light industry and the chemical industry include combines producing cotton textiles, synthetic fibers, worsted fabrics, and synthetic leather. Machine building is represented by plants producing railroad cars (all-metal passenger cars), excavators, diesel switch engines, and electric equipment. Kalinin also has major printing plants (the Kalinin Printing Combine and the Kalinin Children’s Literature Printing Combine), building-material plants, and enterprises of the food industry.

Intensive development of Kalinin began after the fire of 1763 (1763–67; architects P. R. Nikitin, M. F. Kazakov, and A. V. Kvasov). The plan was based on a triradial design with four squares along a central artery. On the octagonal main square (formerly Fountain Square, now Lenin Square) there is a group of classical buildings: the City Council building (1770–80), the House of the Nobility (1766–70), and a school (1786). Among the other monuments of classical architecture are the Excursion Palace of Catherine II (1763–67, architect M. F. Kazakov; additions made in 1809, architect K. I. Rossi), the Church of the Ascension (1813, architect V. P. L’vov), and the Assembly House of the Nobility (1841), with a hall of columns modeled on the one in Moscow. In the Soviet period the historic design of the city has been preserved, new public buildings and residential districts have been built on its outskirts, and considerable work has gone into the provision of green areas and public services and amenities.

Kalinin has monuments to Marx (concrete, 1918), V. I. Lenin (granite and forged bronze, 1959; sculptors B. P. Barkov and P. V. Kenig, architect I. D. Mel’chakov), Afanasii Nikitin (bronze and granite, 1955; sculptor S. M. Orlov, architect G. A. Zakharov), and I. A. Krylov (bronze and granite, 1959; sculptors S. D. Shaposhnikov and D. V. Gorlov), and the Victory Obelisk (cement and bronze, 1970; sculptors I. M. Rukavish-nikov and A. N. Filippova, architects N. N. Milovidov and G. E. Saevich). The city has a university, a polytechnic institute, an agricultural institute (in the settlement of Sakharovo), and a medical institute. There are ten secondary specialized schools, including railroad-car manufacturing, industrial, textile, and chemical engineering technicums. The city has a drama theater, a young people’s theater, and a puppet theater, as well as a philharmonic orchestra, a museum of local lore, a gallery, the L. Chaikina Museum of Komsomol Glory, and a museum of the everyday life of Tver’.


Proshloe i nastoiashchee goroda Tveri. Tver’, 1917.
Kalinin: PutevoditeV. Compiled by N. I. Mazurin. Moscow, 1968.



(until 1935, Porsy), an urban-type settlement andadministrative center of Kalinin Raion, Tashauz Oblast, Turk-men SSR, located 41 km northwest of the city of Tashauz and6 km from the Lavak railway station on the Chardzhou-Kun-grad line. Population, 12, 800 (1972). There is a ginnery and apeople’s amateur theater.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mikhail Ivanovich . 1875--1946, Soviet statesman: titular head of state (1919--46); a founder of Pravda (1912)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005