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En la actualidad, la Red de laboratorios oficiales esta constituida por 28 LOCM pertenecientes a 23 paises de la Region (cuadro 1) y, para su funcionamiento, se utilizan diferentes estrategias, entre las que se describen el sistema virtual ELLUMINATE, la plataforma PRAIS de la OPS y reuniones presenciales.
Abbreviations CIN: Contrast-Induced nephropathy CI-AKI: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury ARF: Acute renal failure CT: Computed tomography i.v.: Intravenous MDRD: Modification of diet in renal disease CKD-EPI: Chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration eGFR: Estimated glomerular filtration rate RBF: Renal blood flow GFR: Glomerular filtration rate NO: Nitric oxide [O.sub.2]: Oxygen ROS: Reactive oxygen species HOCM: High-osmolar contrast media LOCM: Low-osmolar contrast media IOCM: Iso-osmolar contrast media CRF: Chronic renal failure ACEIs: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ARBs: Angiotensin II receptor blockers EPO: Erythropoietin TMZ: Trimetazidine.
Despite the study's limitations, such as the absence of any control conditions (e.g., the use of hyperosmolar solutions since diatrizoate is a high-osmolar RCM) in assessing the role of hypertonicity in CIN pathogenesis and their choice of cells that did not include an adult human proximal tubule cell line (such as HK-2 cells), the work provided new evidence that iodinated contrast media, with the exception of iohexol (a nonionic LOCM), could activate the JNK/ATF2 signaling pathways.
Por otra parte, la capacitacion es un paso importante en el camino de dichos LOCM para establecer la precalificacion como laboratorio de referencia de las Naciones Unidas.
Thus, the LOCM, iopromide, generates much more diuresis than the IOCM, iodixanol, and does, thereby, prevent a major increase in urine viscosity even in animals that are not well hydrated (Figure 3(b)) 39].
Agregada a esta fragilidad, y debido a la jerarquia del fomento productivo exogeno a las comunas afectadas, se encuentra la debil integracion entre la industria salmonera y las administraciones locales con competencias en las areas de "planificacion local, desarrollo comunitario, proteccion del ambiente, transporte, seguridad ciudadana, prevencion de riesgos, educacion, cultura, salud publica, entre otros (LOCM, 2006).
Ionic high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM, e.g., diatrizoate, 1500 to 1800 mOsm/kg, i.e., 5-8 times the osmolality of plasma) have a ratio of 1.5: 1, nonionic low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM, e.g., iohexol, 600 to 850 mOsm/kg, i.e., 23 times the osmolality of plasma) have a ratio of 3:1, and nonionic iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM, e.g., iodixanol, approximately 290 mOsm/kg, i.e., same osmolality as plasma) have a ratio of 6: 1 [83].
The overall incidence of CIN in the LOCM contrast group paralleled that of a control group up to a SCr level of 1.8 mg/dL.
In a meta-analysis of 25 trials, the pooled odds ratio of CI-AKI with LOCM was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.48-0.77) times that after high osmolar contrast media (HOCM).
Although 3% of patients who receive nonionic LOCM will experience a contrast reaction, the vast majority of reactions are mild and require no treatment.
We performed a single-centre, retrospective observational study, on the use of iodixanol (IOCM) versus iohexol (LOCM) in patients who underwent emergency or elective intra-arterial angiography, in our tertiary institution from January till December 2009.
Online local media company Local Corporation (NASDAQ: LOCM) announced on Monday that it has appointed Peter Chang as vice president, consumer properties.