LPWAN(Low Power Wide Area Network) Network technologies for battery-based, low-speed sensors that operate without human intervention for several years. Designed for the Internet of Things (IoT), unlicensed solutions include France-based Sigfox and LoRaWAN (Long Range WAN) from the LoRa Alliance.
Evolutionary and Clean Slate Cellular
A variety of cellular technologies using licensed spectrum compete for IoT devices. Evolutionary technologies are Extended Coverage GSM (EC-GSM) and LTE-M. In contrast, "clean slate" Cellular IoT (CIoT), which is not backward compatible with the installed LTE infrastructure, consists of Narrowband Cellular IoT (NB-CIoT) and Narrowband LTE-M (NB LTE-M). See Internet of Things, LTE for IoT, 802.11af, 802.11ah and 802.22.
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