1938: Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann, working for Sandoz Laboratories in search of stimulant pharmaceutical drugs, synthesises the chemical LSD-25
: he would not discover its powerful psychoactive properties until 1943, and then only by accident.
(20) By the mid-twentieth century, some psychiatrists were treating obsessional neurosis with LSD-25
, (21) and Kusama's gradual personality change from an introvert to an extrovert during this period coincided with the new studies made by the behavioral psychologist Timothy Leary.
Early research with hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD-25
, focused on their ability to produce a schizophrenic-like state, the so-called "psychotomimetic effect" (Hoffer & Osmond 1967: 36, 128).
The water cycling through the delicate glass structure, made of scavenged Victorian crystal, carries what a framed certificate assures us is a homeopathic trace of LSD-25
. Homeopathic remedies, widely embraced in the artist's native Germany, rely on dosages so subtle that in the eyes of conventional science they don't even exist.
However, in January 1956 an assistant chief chemical officer who was helping design an LSD experiment with a group of soldiers commented in response to the recommendation: In view of the fact that a great many of the effects observed in the group may be the result of suggestion [placebo effect] it would appear desirable to have one control group which has neither been given a training lecture on LSD-25
, nor any information as to the symptoms of the drug being administered.
Comparison of the reactions induced by psilocybin and LSD-25 in man.
Cross tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25 with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions.
The effects of LSD-25
on creativity and tolerance to regression.