Many characteristics generally found in mammals were also seen in bats, such as the presence of central lacteals in the lamina propria of the villi, and an outer muscular layer composed of a circular and a longitudinal layer, the former increasing in thickness as it approaches the large intestine.
In the lamina propria of the villi we could see the presence of a discontinuous lacteal vessel, a central lymphatic vessel (Fig.
As in biopsy specimens from human patients, various stages have been recognized in the duodenal lamina propria and rarely within the mesenteric lymph node. This suggests that a possible means of dissemination might be through the lymphatic system, from the villous lacteals
to the dilated lymphatics in the serosa.
These channels, except for the lacteals
which contain a milky fluid called chyle, contain a clear liquid known as lymph which drains to the lymph nodes and ultimately reaches the thoracic duct or the right lymphatic duct which direct the lymph into the venous system at the junction of the jugular and subclavian veins on either side (Leeds, 1997).
Herophilus described the delicate arachnoid membranes, the cerebral ventricles, the venous sinuses especially the confluence of venous sinuses near the internal occipital protuberance (torcular Herophili), origin of nerves (he divided them into motor and sensory tracts) and differentiation of tendons from nerves (which were confusing at that time), the lacteals
, coverings of the eye, liver, uterus, epididymis, amidst many other structures.
28 (21.75%) mothers had given pre lacteal feeds, 107(78.25%) had not given.
We also found no significant relation between pre lacteal feeding and place of delivery (Chi Sq = .000, df = 1, p = 0.985).