Ladislaus IV

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Ladislaus IV,

1262–90, king of Hungary (1272–90), son and successor of Stephen V. Ladislaus became unpopular by favoring the CumansCumans
or Kumans
, nomadic East Turkic people, identified with the Kipchaks (or the western branch of the Kipchaks) and known in Russian as Polovtsi. Coming from NW Asian Russia, they conquered S Russia and Walachia in the 11th cent.
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, from whom he was descended through his mother. During his reign, much of it while he was a minor, the magnates and lower nobility were able to establish their power constitutionally, at the expense of the monarchy. There were several revolts against the king, and he was finally slain by the once-favored Cumans. He died heirless; his successor, Andrew III (reigned 1290–1301), who issued from another branch of the Arpad dynasty, was succeeded as king of Hungary by King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia.

Ladislaus IV,

1595–1648, king of Poland (1632–48), son and successor of Sigismund IIISigismund III,
1566–1632, king of Poland (1587–1632) and Sweden (1592–99). The son of John III of Sweden and Catherine, sister of Sigismund II of Poland, he united the Vasa and Jagiello dynasties.
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. His reign was marked by struggles with his subjects and wars with the Swedes, the Russians, and the Ottomans. Ladislaus in his later years vainly sought to establish authority over the nobles. The CossackCossacks
, Rus. Kazaki, Ukr. Kozaky, peasant-soldiers in Ukraine and in several regions of Russia who, until 1918, held certain privileges in return for rendering military service. The first Cossack companies were formed in the 15th cent.
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 revolt, under ChmielnickiChmielnicki, Khmelnytskyy or Khmelnitsky, Bohdan
, c.1595–1657, hetman (leader) of Ukraine. An educated member of the Ukrainian gentry, he early joined the Ukrainian Cossacks.
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, broke out just before his death. He was succeeded by his brother, John IIJohn II
(John Casimir), 1609–72, king of Poland (1648–68), son of Sigismund III. He was elected to succeed his brother, Ladislaus IV. The turbulent period of his reign is known in Polish history as the Deluge.
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.
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