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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(in Russian, Lendi; also known as Seraiki, Multani, Western Panjabi, Jatki), a language spoken mainly in the western part of West Punjab and in the state of Bahawalpur in Pakistan. Lahnda is related to the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indo-European language family. There are 12.5 million Lahnda speakers (1970 estimate). Lahnda is represented by two dialect groups: southern (Multani, Jatki, Thali) and northern (Poth, Cibhali, Awankari). Multani is the main dialect. The first literary texts date from the 12th century (the poet Sheikh Farid). Collections of poetry, songs, fairy-tales, and stories were published in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Newspapers and magazines are also published in Lahnda.


Smirnov, Iu. A. lazyk lendi Moscow, 1970.
Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India, vol. 8. Calcutta, 1919.
Chatterji, S. K. Indo-Aryan and Hindi, 2nd ed. Calcutta, 1960.
Bahri, A. Lahndi Phonetics. Allahabad, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
OIA labial or dental + r are usually preserved in Romani as well as to a varying extent in the west and north-west as in Sindhi, Lahnda, Dardic and West Pahari.
The first innovation here Turner discusses is this (1927: 24): "A breathed consonant preceded by a nasal has been voiced in Sindhi, Lahnda, Panjabi, the whole Dard group (except perhaps Gawar-Bati; and not in Kafiri), and all the Pahari dialects as far as, and including, Nepali (except for a few small enclaves).
cit.): "In Sindhi, Lahnda, Dardic, and West Pahari, when the group r + consonant or consonant + r occurs in the middle of a word, the r is transposed (after the accompanying consonant has been doubled) and pronounced after the first consonant of the word.
The word derives < OIA slesman- 'mucus, phlegm' (12744); similar looking derivations are only found in the west and northwest: Khetrani lim 'marrow', Dumaki lima 'mucus from nose', Lahnda lim 'phlegm, mucus from nose', and West Pahari Khashi and Bhadrawahi limm 'mucus of nose'.
It could be inherited from a phonological point of view; however, the fact that modem descendants are only found in Sindhi, Lahnda, Panjabi and West Pahari makes also this word a strong borrowing candidate.
cuda1: Nuristani, Dardic, West Pahari, Sindhi, Lahnda, Panjabi, Kumaoni, Nepali, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Bihari, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Hindi, Maldivian.
*cotta-: Sindhi, Lahnda, Panjabi, West Pahari, Hindi, Oriya, Gujarati.
--(without year specification) A note on the Khetrani dialect of Lahnda. In: Acta Orientalia, pp.