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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the language of the Laks, one of the literary languages of the Dagestan ASSR. Lak belongs to the Dagestan group of Caucasian (Ibero-Caucasian) languages. It is spoken in the Laka, Kuli, and Novaia Laka raions of the Dagestan ASSR, by approximately 82,200 people (1970 census).

Lak is divided into five main dialects. The Lak literary language is based on the Kumukh dialect. The phonetic structure of Lak is characterized by the presence of the labialized consonants [kƏv], [tsƏv], [t∫t∫v], and [kh’v], and by the phonemic contrast of simple and intensified consonants, which are distinguished by length and the absence of aspiration. Lak morphology is characterized by four grammatical classes. It has a multicase declensional system. Verbs are inflected for person. Tenses and moods are formed from a primary stem (the verb root with infixation) or from a secondary stem (from the infinitive). The simple sentence in Lak makes use of ergative, nominative, and dative constructions. In the eighth century, the Lak language began using loan-words from Armenian, Persian, and the Turkic languages. In Soviet times, Lak has borrowed vocabulary primarily from Russian. Lak had an alphabet based on Arabic script until 1928, when the alphabet was Romanized; in 1938 the Lak language adopted a writing system based on the Russian alphabet.


Zhirkov, L. I. Lakskii iazyk: Fonetika i morfologiia. Moscow, 1955.
Murkelinskii, G. B. “Lakskii iazyk.” In Iazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 4.Moscow, 1967.
Murkelinskii, G. B. Grammatika lakskogo iazyka, part 1.Makhachkala, 1971.
Murkelinskii, G. B. Russko-lakskii slovar’. Makhachkala, 1953.
Khaidakov, S. M. Laksko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to constitute this offence, Lak stated, the statement of Gujjar saying 'if such things happen next time, all will suffer' needs to be examined carefully.
The commissioning of the Khanh Hoa and Dak Lak solar plants comes only weeks after AC Energy inaugurated the 330-MW solar farm in Ninh Thuan consisting of three solar plants, its maiden greenfield project in the region.
He said Mr Lak was directed to call his staff officer to get details of the incident for speedy action against the SHO.
'Since Indus is an ancient river with a large basin, experts do not contest the views there is a huge pocket of hydrocarbon reserve in the Arabian Sea off Sindh,' Mr Lak said.
In February, Lak said his Lamborghini burst into flames barely an hour after he picked it up from a garage.
The couple shared a tender moment just before the sun went down on Khao Lak.
Former Punjab IGP Syed Kaleem Iman, who was found to have played the role of rubberstamp in NACTA's Khalid Dad Lak inquiry report over controversial transfer, and Ahsan Jamil Gujjar, a close friend of first lady's former husband Khawar Manika, also tendered unconditional apologies.
A reply submitted by Buzdar says while the new report by National Counter Terrorism Authority (Nacta) Coordinator Mehr Khaliq Lak 'treats the statement of Rizwan Gondal/DPO as gospel, it rubbishes all other statements without justifiable reasons and without much ado...The inquiry report merely rubberstamps the statement of the DPO.' Buzdar's reponse also claims Lak held a grudge against the present government for not appointing him inspector general of Punjab.
The Supreme Court rejected Imam's report and ordered the National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA) chief Mehr Khaliq Lak to prepare a new report.
The Supreme Court rejected Imam's report and ordered the National Counter Terrorism Authority (Nacta) Coordinator Mehr Khaliq Lak to prepare a new report.
During the course of proceedings, Chief of National Counter Terrorism Authority (Nacta), Maher Khaliq Dad Lak submitted the report which stated that the the former Pakpattan DPO's transfer was done on the basis of influence.