Landwehr

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Landwehr

 

the category of reserve military manpower second in line to be called up and second-line military units in Prussia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Switzerland in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

It appeared in Austria in 1808. In 1813 the term “landwehr” was adopted by Prussia to signify a militia assigned by military districts for field service. In 1814 it became a category of army reserve to which servicemen 27 to 39 years of age were attached after they completed active military service and had been in the reserve (first in line). Austria introduced the landwehr in December 1866 as second-line units, which retained permanent cadres during peacetime; on the eve of World War I the landwehr was reorganized into first-line troops. In fascist Germany (under a 1935 law) the landwehr included reservists 35 to 45 years of age. The category of landwehr has been preserved in Switzerland.

References in periodicals archive ?
In 1919, after the Battle of C?sis, when the North Latvian Brigade together with Estonians completely defeated the Baltic German Landeswehr and the German Iron Division, on July 3, the Strazdumuiza ceasefire was concluded and on July 6 the North Latvian Brigade entered Riga, where they were welcomed by Southerners.
On December 31, 1918, Karlis Ulmanis Interim Government appointed him as commander of the Landeswehr Latvian units.
Latvian soldiers, together with the German units of the Landeswehr, fiercely resisted the attackers, and after the Bolsheviks were expelled from Skrund on January 29, 1919, the liberation of Courland began.