(1) In Russia from 1713 to 1719, a councillor taken from among the noblemen of a district. The office of landrat was introduced by Peter I. To administer a province, a province collegium was formed consisting of eight to 12 landrats (depending on the number of districts in the province). In 1719, landrats were replaced by voevody (military governors), who were appointed by the government.
(2) In the Federal Republic of Germany the head of a district body of local government.
(3) A legislative body in some cantons of Switzerland.