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(1) In the Middle Ages, bodies of class-estate representation in German states; they arose in the 13th century.
(2) Local bodies of government that formed in certain German principalities in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 19th century the bodies were reorganized into estate-representative assemblies that dealt with local issues.
(3) A representative body in the North German Confederation (until the formation in 1871 of the German empire).
(4) The name of representative bodies in a number of states. In the Federal Republic of Germany, they are the highest representative bodies of Lander; in addition, the cities of Bremen and Hamburg have Landtag bodies that are municipal assemblies. In Austria, Landtag bodies are legislative Land assemblies. The parliament in the principality of Liechtenstein is called the Landtag. Until 1952, Landtag bodies existed in the German Democratic Republic.
(5) In Livonia from 1419 to 1516, an elective representative body. Later, the bodies were assemblies of the nobility in Cour-land, Livonia, and Estonia.