Lanfranc


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Lanfranc

(lăn`frăngk), d. 1089, Italian churchman and theologian, archbishop of Canterbury (1070–89), b. Pavia. At first educated in civil law, he turned to theology and became a pupil of Berengar of ToursBerengar of Tours
, c.1000–1088?, French theologian, also called Bérenger and Berengarius, b. Tours. He was archdeacon of Angers (c.1040–1060). After studying at Chartres, he returned to Tours to become head of its cathedral school.
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. After teaching in Avranches, Normandy, he went to Bec (c.1040), where he founded an illustrious school and became prior (c.1043). Among his pupils were St. AnselmAnselm, Saint
, 1033?–1109, prelate in Normandy and England, archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church (1720), b. Aosta, Piedmont. After a carefree youth of travel and schooling in Burgundy he became a disciple and companion of Lanfranc, the famed theologian and prior
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 and perhaps Pope Alexander II. In 1049, Berengar impugned Lanfranc's orthodoxy, and Lanfranc, successfully clearing himself, attacked Berengar in turn. Some 10 years later Lanfranc wrote the treatise De Corpore et Sanguine Domine [concerning the Body and Blood of the Lord], which, though ineffective as a rebuttal of Berengar's writings on the Eucharist, set forth ideas that became influential in the Middle Ages. He was closely associated with Duke William of Normandy (later William IWilliam I
or William the Conqueror,
1027?–1087, king of England (1066–87). Earnest and resourceful, William was not only one of the greatest of English monarchs but a pivotal figure in European history as well.
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 of England) and probably helped secure papal recognition of the duke's marriage and the papal blessing for the conquest of England. In 1070, William replaced StigandStigand
, d. 1072, English prelate. He held simultaneously the sees of Winchester and Canterbury from 1052 though official recognition of this did not come until 1058 from Benedict X, an antipope.
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 as archbishop with Lanfranc, who accepted only on the direct command of the pope. Thereafter king and archbishop worked closely together in matters of both church and state. Lanfranc replaced English abbots and bishops with Normans (a course often denounced but quite essential to any reform), reduced the archbishop of York to subjection to Canterbury, legislated against clerical marriage and concubinage, built churches, reformed ecclesiastical finance, established ecclesiastical courts, strengthened the monasteries, and removed the bishoprics from small towns to important cities. Occasional friction between church and state caused no quarrels until the reign of William IIWilliam II
or William Rufus
, d. 1100, king of England (1087–1100), son and successor of William I. He was called William Rufus or William the Red because of his ruddy complexion.
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. Lanfranc had favored young William, and crowned him, but the archbishop was deeply displeased by the king's arbitrary actions, and trouble was averted only by Lanfranc's death.

Bibliography

See M. Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (1978).

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Lanfranc

?1005--89, Italian ecclesiastic and scholar; archbishop of Canterbury (1070--89) and adviser to William the Conqueror. He instituted many reforms in the English Church
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
What Goscelin thought that post-conquest Wilton needed by way of support was the approval of Archbishop Lanfranc, and Edith's completed Vita will, I think, more easily bear the construction that Edith and her author had similar aims in mind.
It was after that event that Berengar composed his extended, critical response to Lanfranc's espousal of the position of Paschasius Radbertus.
So convinced was Anselm of this method that he refused to revise the Monologion even after Lanfranc's critical review of it.
(18) It is a conception of metropolitan province with a long history in Anglicanism and can be found very early in the attitude of the Norman archbishops of Canterbury, Lanfranc and Anselm, in their relations with the Pope.
Individuals >45 years old were randomly selected from the practice lists of 7 representative local community practices in Harrow, North London (Stanmore Medical Centre, Belmont Health Centre, Headstone Road Medical Centre, Lanfranc Medical Centre, GP Direct, Enderley Road Medical Centre, and Pinn Medical Centre).
Famous are the eleventh-century complaints to Irish kings about the loose marriage customs in Ireland from Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury, as well as his successor Anselm.
Anselm praised Lanfranc and Gilbert in the most affectionate terms.
So, from the historicizing doctrine of Augustine through the cautious articulation of the mystery of reunion found in Bede, Atto, and Lanfranc, to the affectionate vision of Aelred, we see not a hardening but an acceptance of the theological doctrine of enduring covenant in the Christian Middle Ages.
Starting with Cicero's definition of philosophy as something detached from reality, which was largely misunderstood by later generations, d'Onofrio covers most of the great thinkers of Christian Europe: Plotinus, John Scotus Eriugena, Boethius, Augustine, Alcuin, Lanfranc, Peter Damian, Peter Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Nicholas of Cusa and many, many more.
Augustine's, containing the oldest surviving copy of the Pauline epistles with Lanfranc's gloss, the Song of Songs, and the Apocalypse, still in its contemporary binding (no.