Lanfranc


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Lanfranc

(lăn`frăngk), d. 1089, Italian churchman and theologian, archbishop of Canterbury (1070–89), b. Pavia. At first educated in civil law, he turned to theology and became a pupil of Berengar of ToursBerengar of Tours
, c.1000–1088?, French theologian, also called Bérenger and Berengarius, b. Tours. He was archdeacon of Angers (c.1040–1060). After studying at Chartres, he returned to Tours to become head of its cathedral school.
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. After teaching in Avranches, Normandy, he went to Bec (c.1040), where he founded an illustrious school and became prior (c.1043). Among his pupils were St. AnselmAnselm, Saint
, 1033?–1109, prelate in Normandy and England, archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church (1720), b. Aosta, Piedmont. After a carefree youth of travel and schooling in Burgundy he became a disciple and companion of Lanfranc, the famed theologian and prior
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 and perhaps Pope Alexander II. In 1049, Berengar impugned Lanfranc's orthodoxy, and Lanfranc, successfully clearing himself, attacked Berengar in turn. Some 10 years later Lanfranc wrote the treatise De Corpore et Sanguine Domine [concerning the Body and Blood of the Lord], which, though ineffective as a rebuttal of Berengar's writings on the Eucharist, set forth ideas that became influential in the Middle Ages. He was closely associated with Duke William of Normandy (later William IWilliam I
or William the Conqueror,
1027?–1087, king of England (1066–87). Earnest and resourceful, William was not only one of the greatest of English monarchs but a pivotal figure in European history as well.
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 of England) and probably helped secure papal recognition of the duke's marriage and the papal blessing for the conquest of England. In 1070, William replaced StigandStigand
, d. 1072, English prelate. He held simultaneously the sees of Winchester and Canterbury from 1052 though official recognition of this did not come until 1058 from Benedict X, an antipope.
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 as archbishop with Lanfranc, who accepted only on the direct command of the pope. Thereafter king and archbishop worked closely together in matters of both church and state. Lanfranc replaced English abbots and bishops with Normans (a course often denounced but quite essential to any reform), reduced the archbishop of York to subjection to Canterbury, legislated against clerical marriage and concubinage, built churches, reformed ecclesiastical finance, established ecclesiastical courts, strengthened the monasteries, and removed the bishoprics from small towns to important cities. Occasional friction between church and state caused no quarrels until the reign of William IIWilliam II
or William Rufus
, d. 1100, king of England (1087–1100), son and successor of William I. He was called William Rufus or William the Red because of his ruddy complexion.
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. Lanfranc had favored young William, and crowned him, but the archbishop was deeply displeased by the king's arbitrary actions, and trouble was averted only by Lanfranc's death.

Bibliography

See M. Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (1978).

Lanfranc

?1005--89, Italian ecclesiastic and scholar; archbishop of Canterbury (1070--89) and adviser to William the Conqueror. He instituted many reforms in the English Church
References in periodicals archive ?
Jean de Montclos, Lanfranc et Berengar: La controverse eucharistique du XIe siecle (Leuven: Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniensis, 1971) 88, 123-24, 184-85.
18) It is a conception of metropolitan province with a long history in Anglicanism and can be found very early in the attitude of the Norman archbishops of Canterbury, Lanfranc and Anselm, in their relations with the Pope.
First, and most simply, we note that, in a number of cases, acquaintance with contemporary Jews appears to have tempered one's outlook on Jewish salvation; such was the case for Origen, Lanfranc, Hugh, Thomas, and Alonso.
C'est pour cette raison que je fais allusion ici a une contribution recente de Costantino Marmo qui, en se rattachant aux etudes sur la dispute eucharistique au XIe siecle entre Berenger de Tours et Lanfranc de Pavie et sur l'interet renouvele pour la theorie du signe augustinienne (99), souligne l'apport innovatif des idees theologiques et semiotiques exposees au IXe siecle par Paschase Radbert dans son De corpore et sanguine Domini et dans son Expositio in Matheo.
Farzana Akbar, 47, took five maths papers from Archbishop Lanfranc School in Croydon, South London.
Lanfranc Cigala left a sirventes of two stanzas, eleven lines long apiece, with a tornada of three lines; the rhyme scheme is such that the second stanza and tornada correspond exactly (providing we ignore the first stanza) to the form of a sonnet by Giacomo da Lentini (Antonelli 67).
Farzana Akbar was handed the suspension by the General Teaching Council after she illegally removed five GCSE maths papers from the Archbishop Lanfranc School in south London, where she had taught for 13 years.
Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1070-89, was extremely fond of splendid liturgical garments, and is reported to have given Christ Church, Canterbury, several copes that survived for centuries.
Akbar, of Motspur Park, Surrey, taught community languages at Archbishop Lanfranc School in Croydon, Surrey, and had worked at the school for 13 years.
In London this week a female teacher was arrested after the theft of a GCSE maths paper for an upcoming exam from Archbishop Lanfranc School in Croydon.
Later that century, Lanfranc, who then held the See of Canterbury, worried that Alphege should not be given liturgical honors as a martyr because he did not die for the faith but as the result of a drunken rage.