Languedoc


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Languedoc

(läNgdôk`), region and former province, S France, bounded by the foot of the Pyrenees, the upper Garonne River, the Auvergne Mts., the Rhône, and the Mediterranean. It comprises the departments of Aude, Gard, Hérault, Lozère, and Pyrénées Orientales, and is part of the administrative region of Occitania. The Garonne plains, centering around Toulouse, the chief city, are fertile farming and wine-producing districts. The name was derived from the language of its inhabitants (see langue d'oc and langue d'oïllangue d'oc and langue d'oïl
, names of the two principal groups of medieval French dialects. Langue d'oc
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). It now generally refers to Lower Languedoc, an alluvial plain along the Mediterranean, with a warm climate; wine is the chief product, and Montpellier, Nîmes, Sète, Béziers, and Narbonne are the chief cities. Historic Carcassonne is also there. The Massif Central rises in the north and the east. Historically, Languedoc roughly corresponds to Narbonensis prov. of Roman Gaul; Lower Languedoc was the later Septimania. Its history from the Frankish conquest (completed 8th cent.) to its final incorporation into the French royal domain (1271) is largely that of the counts of ToulouseToulouse
, city (1990 pop. 365,933), capital of Haute-Garonne dept., S France, on the Garonne River. France's fastest growing region, it is one of France's great cultural and commercial centers.
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. Under the old regime the parlement of Languedoc sat at Toulouse; the provincial assembly retained importance until the French Revolution.

Languedoc

 

an economic region and former province in southern France. It is situated west of the lower Rhône and is bounded by the Massif Central, the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and the Pyrenees. Languedoc contains the departments of the Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Hérault, Gard, and Lozère. Area, 27,800 sq km; population, 1,750,000 (1971). Languedoc is France’s principal grape-growing and wine-producing region (more than 40 percent of all French wine production). It has other food industries. Light industry is well developed in Languedoc. There is also machine building, metal-working, and petroleum refining (Frontignan). One of the centers of the atomic industry is in Marcoule. There is mining of coal (city of Alés) and bauxites (Hérault Department). The coast is a tourist area.

The name “Languedoc” appeared in the 13th century (from the name of the language of the region’s inhabitants— la langue d’oc) to designate the territory of the county of Toulouse, which was annexed to the French crown after the Albigensian wars, partly in 1229 and completely in 1271. After becoming part of the royal domain, Languedoc received the rights of a self-governing province. Beginning in the 14th century, it had its own provincial government. In 1420 a parliament was instituted in Toulouse which functioned regularly from the 1440’s. During the Wars of Religion of the 16th century, the Huguenots took over a sizable part of Languedoc. In the 17th century, under Richelieu, the province’s self-government was somewhat limited, and power was concentrated in the hands of the province intendants, whose residence was in Montpellier. In the 17th and the early 18th century there were a number of antifeudal peasant and city uprisings (the movement of the Croquants in 1636–37 and 1643 and the insurrection of the Camisards in 1702–05, as well as uprisings in Montpellier, Nîmes, Toulouse, and other cities). During the Great French Revolution, Languedoc was divided into departments.

REFERENCES

Le Roy Ladurie, E. Histoire du Languedoc. Paris, 1962.

Languedoc

1. a former province of S France, lying between the foothills of the Pyrenees and the River Rh?ne: formed around the countship of Toulouse in the 13th century; important production of bulk wines
2. a wine from this region
References in periodicals archive ?
Paul Mas Vinus Clairette du Languedoc 2016 (PS8, Morrison's, 12% abv): This wine hails from the smallest and oldest appellation in the Languedoc which was created in 1948.
Caption: TOP: The Royal Navy's Type 23 frigate HMS Monmouth (right) and the French Navy's FREMM frigate Languedoc were docked side by side at the HMC Dockyard at CFB Halifax for their port visits prior to taking part in the Royal Canadian Navy's international Exercise CUTLASS FURY 2016.
Languedoc used to be known as a lake of cheap plonk, but quality has exploded in recent years in what is the largest area given to vines in the whole of France.
The firm has also signed a contract to enter into a time charter for the Genco Languedoc with Setaf Saget SAS for one to three months at a rate of USD24,250 per day.
Stephen Miller's starting point is in the power structures of Languedoc in the seventeenth century, so memorably analyzed by William H.
Despite her lengthy career of supporting the Edmonton Aboriginal community, Languedoc is as modest as she is accomplished.
Chances are you'll arrive in Haut Languedoc by way of the airports at Carcassonne or Montpellier - or the TGV train station at the latter.
Val d'Orbieu is one of the largest producers of wine in the Languedoc region.
Clinique Saint Jean Languedoc has 287 beds and provides a wide range of healthcare services.
He also decenters scholarly emphasis on Languedoc by considering Catharism from beginning to end, wherever it occurred--although the nature of the sources perforce foregrounds Languedoc and Italy.
Domaine de Nizas in Coteaux du Languedoc is doing just that.
Frank's interest in the law as an illuminator of rural society and popular values calls to mind Yves Castan's classic study, Honnetete et relations sociales en Languedoc 1715-1780 (Paris: Plon, 1974) but falls short of Castan's work.