The Order Opiliones Sundevall, comprises four suborders (Cyphophthalmi Simon, Eupnoi Hansen & Sorensen, Dyspnoi Hansen & Sorensen, and Laniatores
Thorell) with more than 6.
fueron estudiados por Roewer (1927), quien anadio cuatro nuevas especies (Musola longipes, Selenca minuscula, Selenca filipes, Pyramidops albimana) y menciono otras siete mas.
Fertilization is internal and the transfer of sperm may occur indirectly through spermatophores in representatives of the suborder Cyphophthalmi, or directly by means of a long and fully intromittent male genitalia in the suborders Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores
(Machado & Macias-Ordonez 2007).
Although the defensive chemistry of Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi and Laniatores
has been studied for some species, that of many important higher taxa (i.
In many Laniatores
, cuticular grooves lead backwards from scent gland orifices and serve to divert the secretion on the body surface, leading to the generation of a protective chemical shield around the body (summary in Gnaspini & Hara 2007).
Chemical and behavioral defenses of a Neotropical cavernicolous harvestman Goniosoma spelaeum (Opiliones, Laniatores
Keys are useful especially in the suborder Laniatores
, where much reshuffling of families has taken place in the last decade.
It is the third most diverse family of the suborder Laniatores
Thorell 1876 and the most diverse of the infra-order Insidiatores Loman 1902 (sensu Kury 2003).
Kaestner 1935; Paulus 2004), although several cases of a lateral migration of the median eyes are known in Laniatores
The family Cosmetidae Koch 1839, with more than 700 nominal species, is the second most diverse of Opiliones suborder Laniatores
Thorell 1876 (Kury 2003).
The genus Oncopus was proposed by Thorell (1876) with the type species Oncopus doriae Thorell 1876 by original designation in Arachnida (Opiliones, Laniatores
, Grassatores, Phalangodoidea, Oncopodidae).
Keywords: Evolution, Karamea, Laniatores