Lansdowne, Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice, 5th marquess of

Lansdowne, Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice, 5th marquess of,

1845–1927, British stateman. A Liberal until 1886, he joined the Conservatives because of GladstoneGladstone, William Ewart,
1809–98, British statesman, the dominant personality of the Liberal party from 1868 until 1894. A great orator and a master of finance, he was deeply religious and brought a highly moralistic tone to politics.
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's Irish policy. During his term as governor-general of Canada (1883–88) a beginning was made to settle disputes over the North American fisheries, and Riel's rebellion was suppressed (see Riel, LouisRiel, Louis
, 1844–85, Canadian insurgent, leader of two rebellions, b. Manitoba, of French and Métis parentage. In 1869–70 he led the rebels of the Red River settlements, mainly Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous descent) and indigenous
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). He then was viceroy of India (1888–94) and war secretary in the cabinet (1895–1900). As foreign secretary he sought to end Britain's comparative diplomatic aloofness by concluding an alliance with Japan (1902), the Anglo-French Entente (1904; see Triple Alliance and Triple EntenteTriple Alliance and Triple Entente
, two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from 1882 until they came into armed conflict in World War I.
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), and arbitration treaties with the United States. He was a member of the coalition government during World War I, and in 1917 sought to hasten the end of the war by having published in a newspaper a letter which set forth terms on which the Allies would make peace.


See biography by T. W. L. Newton (1929).

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