In the present study, we synthesize stoichiometric lanthanum lithium niobate ([La.sub.0.05][Li.sub.0.85]Nb[O.sub.3]) and lithium niobate (LiNb[O.sub.3]) by using lithium carbonate ([Li.sub.2]C[O.sub.3]), niobium oxide ([Nb.sub.2][O.sub.5]), and lanthanum oxide
([La.sub.2][O.sub.3]) as precursors.
Gunn^s, "XPS characterisation of in situ treated lanthanum oxide
and hydroxide using tailored charge referencing and peak fitting procedures," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, vol.
It can be supposed that the as-grown film consists mainly of amorphous lanthanum oxide
but it may also be partially carbonated to form a [La.sub.x][O.sub.y][(C[O.sub.3]).sub.z] type nonstoichiometric amorphous phase.
on the other hand has a band gap value of 4.3 eV and a hexagonal crystal structure and is used in various fields such as in optoelectronic devices and as dopant in camera glass lens to enhance sharpness and to improve clarity of the image.
Kong, "Removal and recovery of phosphate from water by activated aluminum oxide and lanthanum oxide
," Powder Technology, vol.
00-037-1493), lanthanum oxide
(La2O3) (JCPDS card no.
The highest energy contribution is assigned to the bonding between lanthanum and zinc while the lowest energy contribution is attributed to the bonding in the lanthanum oxide
clusters (Anandan et al., 2007).
In addition, no diffraction peaks corresponding to lanthanum and/or lanthanum oxide
nanoparticles have been used in the production of the hybrid materials due to their high dielectric constant while anthracene was used due to its very cheap price and good availability.