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A surgical incision through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity.



a surgical incision in the abdominal cavity. Although laparotomy was even known to ancient physicians, it was seldom used before the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis because of the danger of infection. It provides access to the organs of the abdominal cavity and lesser pelvis and is performed in cases of inflammation and tumors, as well as in cases of stomach wounds and other injuries; it is sometimes used as an independent procedure for diagnostic purposes (celiotomy, or diagnostic laparotomy). It is sometimes combined with thoracotomy.

Laparotomy is performed using a transverse, vertical, or oblique incision. The purpose of the surgical procedure determines the patient’s position on the operating table—completely horizontal or with the head of the table raised or lowered or a bolster placed under the small of the back. Preoperative preparation of the patient and the anesthesia used depend on the nature of the procedure and the patient’s condition. The abdominal cavity is closed by layer-by-layer suturing of the anterior abdominal wall, with insertion of drains if required.

References in periodicals archive ?
1,4,5 Midline laparotomy incision is generally chosen by surgeons because of its ease, speed and excellent view.
The present study aimed at comparing the techniques of laparotomy wound closure.
The same is true for all other surgical morbidities which increase with increasing numbers of repeat laparotomy.
Laparoscopy versus laparotomy in the management of ectopic pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum.
A total of 300 patients undergoing midline laparotomy were recruited and were randomly divided into two equal groups of 150 each.
Abdominal incision injection of liposomal bupivacaine and opioid use after laparotomy for gynecologic malignancies.
Laparotomy, the gold standard, is the most effective and hence the most common technique in the medical literature.
Although spontaneous rupture of pyometra is rare, it should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in postmenopausal women presenting with acute abdomen and dynamic transvaginal sonography should be advised prior to laparotomy for definitive diagnosis.
About three-quarters of respondents currently perform open laparotomy in fewer than 25% of their cases.
Small GIST less than 2 cm are symptomatic and incidentally detected at laparotomy or in endoscopy.
Chest-tube was passed into the injured and internal organs which were affected by the bullet have been repaired through laparotomy.
3,4) The purpose of this study is to assess pre and post-surgical levels of leucocytes, neutrophilia, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets in patients with PAT that underwent exploratory laparotomy.