Laryngoscopy


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Laryngoscopy

 

an instrumental method of examining the larynx through the oral cavity.

There are two types of laryngoscopy: indirect (mirror) and direct. Indirect laryngoscopy is performed with a round laryngeal mirror (16 to 27 mm in diameter) in a metal rim attached to a metal rod at an angle of 120°. A frontal reflector is used to direct a light beam to the laryngeal mirror from an artificial source. Direct laryngoscopy is performed with special medical instruments, or laryngoscopes, which allow one to examine the larynx directly. The method is used in cases where the indirect approach proves inadequate or where the site of examination or surgical intervention proves inaccessible. Direct laryngoscopy is performed under narcosis where indicated.

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This hemodynamic response due to laryngoscopy and intubation is the result of an increase in the levels of circulatory catecholamines which cause the elevation of blood pressure and heart rate.
The operating room anesthesiologist was responsible for identifying the laryngoscopy technique to which each randomized patient had been allocated.
(4) Furthermore, we find that the device allows for an easy and minimally invasive exploration as compared against laryngoscopy using a rigid laryngoscope, as illustrated in our case in which the problem was solved in the same surgical-anesthetic procedure.
HR values significantly increased with the completion of laryngoscopy and intubation at [T.sub.2] for the CL, MC and CM groups but persisted without a significant change for the MG group.
(19) Metoprolol and labetalol do not decrease release of catecholamines but attenuate responses of elevated catecholamines following laryngoscopy and intubation.
The present study is comparable with other similar studies that has obtained some powerful evidence indicating that the use of oral gabapentin, even hours before tracheal intubation can be successful for attenuation of the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation26-28.
[16] demonstrated that intermediate dose of labetalol blunts HR response to laryngoscopy and intubation in healthy patients but has minimal effect on BP.
Fourth, the need of adjuncts was less when using Shikani Optical Stylet than that when using Macintosh laryngoscope, but the authors did not differentiate the adjuncts used for laryngoscopy and intubation.
Foreign body was detected on X-ray in 7(29.2%) participants and through fibre optic laryngoscopy in 13(54.2%).
Binary logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each and combination of risk factors or airway parameters on the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation.
On the day after admission, laryngoscopy revealed a marked hematoma with an immobile right vocal fold (figure, B).