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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Latihan is the name given to the major spiritual exercise practiced by the Subud religion. Subud emerged early in the twentieth century as one of a number of new spiritual movements in Indonesia. It was founded by R. M. Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901–1987), generally called simply Pak Subuh. It was brought to the West at the end of the 1950s through the efforts of English linguist Husein Rofé and John G. Bennett, a student of George I. Gurdjieff. Bennett took seriously Gurdjieff’s admonition to watch for a teacher to come from Indonesia, then known as the Dutch East Indies.

The latihan follows the impulse of Pak Subuh’s original experience of the power of God and is described as releasing the primordial power that is latent in everyone. When the power manifests, the body will react. It might cause any one of hundreds of different body movements, from the graceful to the grotesque. The manifesting power might also lead to various vocalizations or emotional expressions. Initially, the manifestations may be cathartic and assume their more unpleasant forms. However, over time the movements become a manifestation of tranquility, joy, and oneness with the divine.

The latihan is seen as completely spontaneous. It cannot be taught or learned, but it can be transmitted from one person to another. Any person wishing to receive it (termed “being opened”) will stand in the presence of someone who has been opened previously. The new person assumes a receptive state and allows whatever occurs to occur.

Adherents of Subud generally gather twice a week to experience the latihan with fellow believers. Generally, men and women meet separately.


Bennett, J.G. Concerning Subud. New York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1959.
Crouse, Roseanna. The Flowering of the Latihan of Subud. Palm Springs, CA: Undiscovered Worlds Press, 1990.
Geels, Antoon. Subud and the Javanese Mystical Tradition. Richmond, UK: CurzonPress, 1997.
Rofé, Husein. The Path of Subud. London: Rider & Co., 1988.
The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena © 2008 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cash-strapped Umno had previously announced that it will open its Institut Latihan Memperkasa Ummah (Ilmu) in Janda Baik to the public in a bid to generate funds for continued operations after its bank accounts and assets were frozen as part of ongoing criminal cases.
New efforts are also underway to revive the 160 Vocational Training Centres (BLKs or Balai Latihan Kerja) across Indonesia that are managed by the Ministry of Manpower and some regional governments.
I would also like to thank the Ministry of Higher Education for granting me the Hadiah Latihan Persekutuan (HLP) scholarship and all other parties who have unconditionally supported and helped me to write this paper.
Amar Singh (both pediatricians) and Institut Latihan Kebajikan had supported in setting up through the development of a parents committee.
Aspek pengurusan program latihan dan kesannya terhadap kepuasan atlet sekolah sukan.International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS), 22(1), 73-95.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Education Malaysia for providing the funding under the 'Hadiah Latihan Persekutuan' (HLP) scholarship.
Latihan Ilmiah, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.
Malang: Yayasan Pusat Pengkajian, Latihan dan Pengembangan Masyarakat, 1984?
Jakarta: Lembaga pendidikan dan latihan kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, 2005, 324 pp.
Faktor persekitaran kerja dan kebolehan pelatih yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan Sistem Latihan Dual Negara (SLDN).
which the body is let free (Siddha Yoga, the Latihan, the chaotic