Newton's laws of motion

(redirected from Law of inertia)
Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Newton's laws of motion:

see motionmotion,
the change of position of one body with respect to another. The rate of change is the speed of the body. If the direction of motion is also given, then the velocity of the body is determined; velocity is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction, while speed
.

Newton's laws of motion

Three fundamental principles which form the basis of classical, or newtonian, mechanics. They are stated as follows:

First law: A particle not subjected to external forces remains at rest or moves with constant speed in a straight line.

Second law: The acceleration of a particle is directly proportional to the resultant external force acting on the particle and is inversely proportional to the mass of the particle.

Third law: If two particles interact, the force exerted by the first particle on the second particle (called the action force) is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted by the second particle on the first particle (called the reaction force).

The newtonian laws have proved valid for all mechanical problems not involving speeds comparable with the speed of light and not involving atomic or subatomic particles. See Dynamics, Force, Kinetics (classical mechanics)

Newton's laws of motion

The three fundamental laws concerning the motion of bodies that were formulated by Isaac Newton and published together with the law of gravitation in Principia, 1687. The laws are
1. Every body continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line until that state is changed by the action of a force on the body.
2. The rate of change of linear momentum is proportional to the applied force, F , and occurs in the same direction as that of the force, i.e.
F = d(mv )/dt = m (dv /dt) = ma
where m is the mass, v the velocity, and a the resulting acceleration of the body.
3. Every action is opposed by a reaction of equal magnitude that acts in the opposite direction to the action.

The first law was conceived by Galileo, who first realized the falsity of the Greek notion that a force is required to maintain a body in motion. Newton's laws of motion and of gravitation are fundamental to celestial mechanics.

Newton’s Laws of Motion

three laws that form the foundation of classical mechanics. They were formulated by I. Newton in 1687. The first law is: “Every body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, except insofar as it is compelled to change that state by an external impressed force.” The second law is: “The rate of change of linear momentum is proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of the straight line along which the force acts.” The third law is: “To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, or, in other words, the mutual actions between any two bodies are always equal and act in opposite directions.”

Newton’s laws of motion followed from a generalization of numerous observations, experiments, and theoretical investigations conducted by Galileo, C. Huygens, Newton himself, and others.

According to modern concepts and terminology, in the first and second laws the term “body” should be understood to mean a mass point, and “motion” to mean motion with respect to an inertial frame of reference. The mathematical expression of the second law in classical mechanics has the form d(mv)/dt = F, or mw = F, where m is the mass, ν the velocity, and w the acceleration of the point, and F is the impressed force.

Newton’s laws of motion cease to be valid for objects of very small dimensions (elementary particles) and for velocities close to the velocity of light.

REFERENCES

Galilei, G. “Besedy i matematicheskie dokazatel’stva, kasaiushchiesia dvukh novykh otraslei nauki, otnosiashchikhsia k mekhanike i mestnomu dvizheniiu.” Soch., vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934. (Translated from Latin.)
Newton, I. “Matematicheskie nachala natural’noi filosofii.” In A. N. Krylov, Sobr. trudov, vol. 7. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from Latin.)

S. M. TARG

Newton's laws of motion

[′nüt·ənz ′lȯz əv ′mō·shən]
(mechanics)
Three fundamental principles (called Newton's first, second, and third laws) which form the basis of classical, or Newtonian, mechanics, and have proved valid for all mechanical problems not involving speeds comparable with the speed of light and not involving atomic or subatomic particles.
References in periodicals archive ?
LAW of inertia = mass of the leg x radius Squaring (length)
And this is reflected in actual indicators the electrical activity of muscles are (index Summit, space, time), as the exercises used according to the law of inertia may addition carry on the work of muscles within angles required them which require achieve better strength and subscription what is required of the muscles Specialist which led to the smooth flow of high performance and economy and a time of instant push and thereby an increase in the result of muscle strength, force influenced by mechanical factors in terms of increased muscle work or push to take advantage of mechanical laws.
Also appears in the tables (Qassim Hassan Hussein et al, 1991, Mohammad Yousuf Sheikh, 1996, Mohamed Mahmoud Abdel Dayem et al, 1993, Naji happiest, 1999) that there are differences "between moral post-test results for the two sets of research (experimental and control) in favor of the experimental group, which has worked according to scientific bases exercises are designed according to a law of inertia indicators and goal increase the mass.
Hence, the law of inertia yields a tool to locate eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices or definite matrix pencils.
For the general case the law of inertia has the following form:
In the context of this law of inertia, if a particle is in uniform circular motion and the time rate of change of its kinetic energy remains zero, the state of uniform circular motion will be maintained.
The law of inertia presented in this section is a statement that the state of such motions is maintained in the absence of a cause, if power is postulated to be the cause of motion.
The law of inertia is a statement about the tendency of particles to maintain their state of motion when the time rate of change in their kinetic energy is zero and this tendency is called inertia.
Proof: As a direct consequence of the law of inertia, if the time rate of change of kinetic energy is zero and the velocity is denoted by v, then from equations (1) and (5) we obtain
Thus the critical Kant no longer speaks of a force, but of a law of inertia which describes the effects of moving and resting bodies on each other.
This close connection between the law of inertia and the law of communication of motion--modifications of Newton's First and Third Laws of Motion, respectively--has a corresponding passage in the Metaphysical Foundations.
Peter Hare (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1988), 231-47, and Kenneth Westphal, "Kant's Proof of the Law of Inertia," Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, Memphis, vol.

Site: Follow: Share:
Open / Close