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Lawrence.1 City (1990 pop. 26,763), Marion co., central Ind., a residential suburb of Indianapolis, on the West Fork of the White River. It has light manufacturing.
2 City (1990 pop. 65,608), seat of Douglas co., NE Kans., on the Kansas River; inc. 1858. Although agricultural trade is economically important, the city's major employer is the Univ. of Kansas. There is also commercial printing and the manufacture of medical, construction, and communications equipment; feeds; fertilizers; chemicals; textiles; asphalt; and paper products. Lawrence was founded in 1854 by the New England Emigrant Aid CompanyEmigrant Aid Company,
organization formed in 1854 to promote organized antislavery immigration to the Kansas territory from the Northeast. Eli Thayer conceived the plan as early as Feb.
..... Click the link for more information. . The political center of the free-staters, it was actually, though not legally, capital for a short time after 1857. Lawrence was an important stop on the Underground RailroadUnderground Railroad,
in U.S. history, loosely organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states. It was run by local groups of Northern abolitionists, both white and free blacks.
..... Click the link for more information. and the base for many Abolitionist organizations. In 1856 a proslavery raid on the town instigated the retaliatory Pottawatomie killings by John BrownBrown, John,
1800–1859, American abolitionist, b. Torrington, Conn. He spent his boyhood in Ohio. Before he became prominent in the 1850s, his life had been a succession of business failures in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1863 the town was again sacked and burned by William QuantrillQuantrill, William Clarke
, 1837–65, Confederate guerrilla leader, b. Canal Dover (now Dover), Ohio. In the Civil War his band of guerrillas was active in Missouri and Kansas. He was given the rank of captain in the Confederate army. On Aug.
..... Click the link for more information. . The Plymouth Congregational Church there was the first church built (1854) by settlers in Kansas. Lawrence is also the seat of the Haskell Indian Nations Univ. (1884).
3 City (1990 pop. 70,207), a seat of Essex co., NE Mass., on the Merrimack River; settled 1655, set off from Andover and Methuen 1847, inc. as a city 1853. It is a port of entry. Textiles, clothing, electrical equipment, athletic shoes, and rubber and paper products are manufactured. High-technology industries in the area also contribute to Lawrence's economy. Boston capitalists laid out an industrial town there in 1845 and built a granite dam on the Merrimack River. They also built mills and workers' dwellings, which were soon crowded with laborers, mainly from Europe, and Lawrence became one of the world's greatest centers for woolen textiles. Several disastrous events have occurred there—the collapse and burning of the Pemberton Mill in 1860, when over 500 trapped workers were killed or injured; the tornado of 1890; and the protracted labor strike by the Industrial Workers of the WorldIndustrial Workers of the World
(IWW), revolutionary industrial union organized in Chicago in 1905 by delegates from the Western Federation of Mines, which formed the nucleus of the IWW, and 42 other labor organizations.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1912. Leonard BernsteinBernstein, Leonard
, 1918–90, American composer, conductor, and pianist, b. Lawrence, Mass., grad. Harvard, 1939, and Curtis Institute of Music, 1941. A highly versatile musician, he was the composer of symphonic works (the Jeremiah Symphony, 1944;
..... Click the link for more information. was born there.
a city in the northeastern USA, in Massachusetts, on the Merrimack River. Population, 67,000 (1970; 232,000 including the neighboring city of Haverhill and their common suburban area). Approximately 40,000 of its inhabitants are employed in industry (about 15,000 in Lawrence). It produces textiles, clothing, leather footwear, radioelectronic equipment, rubber, paper, military hardware, and equipment for the textile and footwear industries.