Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot

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Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite


Born May 13, 1753, in Nolay; died Aug. 2, 1823, in Magdeburg. French statesman and military figure, mathematician. Member of the Institut de France (1796). Member of the Legislative Assembly of 1791–92 and of the Convention of 1792–95.

During the Jacobin dictatorship, Carnot was a member of the Committee of Public Safety (from 1793). He emerged as a major military organizer of the struggle against the interventionists and royalists; contemporaries called him the “organizer of victory.” During the Thermidorian reaction, in July 1794, he opposed M. Robespierre. From 1795 to 1797, Carnot was a member of the Directory. After the coup of 18 Fructidor, he fled abroad. In 1800 he returned to France. From April to August 1800, he was minister of war. In March 1802 he became a member of the Tribunate. Carnot voted against the Empire, although he remained a supporter of Napoleon. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he was minister of the interior in Napoleon’s government; he received the title of count. After the second restoration of the Bourbons, he was exiled from France in 1815.

Carnot’s mathematical works deal with analysis and geometry. In his Reflections on the Metaphysics of the Calculus of Infinitely Small Numbers (1797), Carnot argued in favor of the correctness of the results of this calculus. Carnot’s study of various means of substantiating analysis, including the methods of exhaustion, prime numbers, and limits, as well as his critique of Lagrange’s theory of analytic functions, partially prepared the way for the reform of analysis in the early 19th century. In his works On the Correlation of Geometric Figures (1801), Position Geometry (1803), and Theory of Transversals (1806), Carnot appeared as the forerunner of J. Poncelet and the other creators of projective geometry. Carnot also wrote a number of works on applied mechanics (Experiments on Machines in General, 1783) and on fortification (On the Defense of Fortresses, vols. 1–3, 1810).


In Russian translation:
Razmyshleniia o metafizike ischisleniia beskonechno malykh, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Contains bibliography.)


Reinhard, M. Le Grand Carnot, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1950–52
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He might have placed Marius alongside other military reformers, such as Philip II of Macedon, Shang Yang of Qin, Maurice of Nassau of the Netherlands, and Lazare Carnot of France.
Nieto de Lazare Carnot, el mayor estratega de la Revolucion Francesa y las guerras napoleonicas; sobrino de Nicolas Carnot, que con sus Reflexiones sobre la potencia motriz del fuego contribuyo a fundar la moderna termodinamica, Sadi Carnot (1837-1894) presidio entre oposiciones y escandalos la Republica Francesa y fue asesinado por un anarquista italiano.
For example, Lazare Carnot becomes the "Organizer of Victory" during the Thermidorian Reaction [1794-1795] instead of the Terror [1793-1794] (98).
Contract notice: Revival - lots 6a and 7 - construction work of the quartier de la creativity, The old site of the chalucet hospital, The lazare carnot health center and the vincent allgre island in toulon
Tenders are invited for Construction work quartier creativity and knowledge site of the former hospital chalucet, The lazare carnot health center and the island vincent allgre in toulon.
It is to reinvest a fallow site to 5 minutes of the station and to renovate the urban center to reinforce the heart of the territory with a district of creativity and knowledge including: - A multimedia library 5200 m2SP (master of work City of Toulon) - A school of higher education of art and design: ESAD 5000 m2SP, (TPM contracting authority), - A KEDGE BS 5800 m2SP international business college (CCI VAR project management), - A 1400 m2SP digital incubator incubator (TPM contracting authority), - offices for the administration of the Dpartemental Council 83, 2200 + 1800 m2SP on the city Lazare Carnot and 5000 m2SP on the plot Vincent Allgre (project manager CD83) - an eco-neighborhood reference QDM (Durable Mediterranean Quarter) .