Le Nôtre, André

Le Nôtre, André

(äNdrā` lənō`trə), 1613–1700, the most famous landscape architect in French history, b. near the TuileriesTuileries
, former palace in Paris. Planned by Catherine de' Medici and begun in 1564 by Philibert Delorme, it occupied part of the present Tuileries gardens. It was rarely used as a royal residence until 1789, when Louis XVI was forced by the revolutionists to move there from
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; studied drawing with Simon VouetVouet, Simon
, 1590–1649, French portrait and decorative painter. He first established himself as a successful painter in Rome. Recalled to France in 1627 as court painter to Louis XIII, he decorated several of the royal palaces.
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 at the LouvreLouvre
, foremost French museum of art, located in Paris. The building was a royal fortress and palace built by Philip II in the late 12th cent. In 1546 Pierre Lescot was commissioned by Francis I to erect a new building on the site of the Louvre.
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. Le Nôtre's first important design, the park of Vaux-le-Vicomte, attracted the attention of Louis XIV, who then entrusted him with the direction of nearly all the royal parks and gardens. He brought to full development that type of spacious formal garden, characterized by extensive unbroken vistas, that so accurately expressed the grandeur of his period. The gardens of the palace of VersaillesVersailles
, city (1990 pop. 91,029), capital of Yvelines dept., N central France. It was an insignificant rural hamlet when Louis XIII constructed a small retreat there in 1623.
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, on which he collaborated with the painter Charles Le BrunLe Brun, Charles
, 1619–90, French painter, decorator, and architect. He studied with Vouet and in Rome. Strongly influenced by Poussin, he returned in 1646 to Paris, where he gradually developed a more decorative form of classicism.
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, are his most celebrated work. In 1664 he transformed the palace gardens of the Tuileries. He also designed parks for Saint-Cloud, Marly-le-Roi, Chantilly, Fontainebleau, and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. His principles in garden design dominated throughout Europe until the rise of the English school of informal and naturalistic gardens in the 18th cent.

Bibliography

See biography by H. Fox (1962) and E. Orsenna (2001); study by F. H. Hazlehurst (1980); E. T. Haskell and M. Kenna, Le Notre's Gardens (2d ed., 1999); I. Thompson, The Sun King's Garden (2006); P. Bouchenot-Déchin and G. Farhat, ed., André Le Nôtre in Perspective (2014).

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