Le Pen, Jean-Marie

Le Pen, Jean-Marie

(zhŏn'-märē` lə pĕn, pŏN), 1928–, French politician. He graduated from law school, was elected (1956) a parliamentary deputy, and criticized President de Gaullede Gaulle, Charles
, 1890–1970, French general and statesman, first president (1959–69) of the Fifth Republic. The World Wars

During World War I de Gaulle served with distinction until his capture in 1916. In The Army of the Future (1934, tr.
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's Algerian policy. From 1972 to 2011 he led the extreme right-wing National Front (FN). His opposition to immigration and support for national defense aroused strong feelings in France, and he was fined for remarks that minimized aspects of the HolocaustHolocaust
, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust.
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 and the Nazi occupation of France. His party won a number of seats in the National Assembly during the late 1980s, but in 1988, despite the four million votes his presidential bid received, the FN was almost entirely unsuccessful. Le Pen became a member of the European Parliament (EP) in 1984, but was ultimately stripped (2003) of his seat due to his 1998 conviction for assaulting a rival politician. In the first round of the 2002 presidential election Le Pen edged out Premier JospinJospin, Lionel Robert
, 1937–, French politician, premier of France (1997–2002). He studied at the elite École Nationale d'Administration (1961–65) and worked (1965–70) in the foreign ministry.
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 to finish second behind President ChiracChirac, Jacques René
, 1932–, French political leader, president of France (1995–2007), b. Paris. He attended the National School of Administration, joined the civil service, and began his political career in 1961 working for Premier Georges Pompidou.
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, but in the runoff he garnered only 18% of the vote. Le Pen placed fourth in the 2007 presidential election. Marine Le PenLe Pen, Marine
(Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen) , 1968–, French politician, daughter of Jean-Marie Le Pen. A lawyer, she was in private practice (1992–98) before becoming head of legal affairs (1998–2003) and deputy chairwoman (2003–11) of the National Front
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, his daughter, succeeded him as head of the FN in 2011, and worked to reduce the FN's radical image. In 2015 he was expelled from the party after again minimizing aspects of the Holocaust, and founded a new party. His memoir (2018) was a French bestseller.
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Fifteen years later, however, large sections of the French left are refusing to back Emmanuel Macron against Marine Le Pen, Jean-Marie Le Pen's daughter.