leafhopper

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leafhopper,

common name for small, wedge-shaped leaping insects, cosmopolitan in distribution, belonging to the family Cicadellidae, which comprises some 5,500 species of insects. Some are brightly colored and others are green to brown; they generally measure less than 1-4 in. (6 mm) in length. Leafhoppers, and the family as a whole, attack a wide range of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs. However, the nymphs and adults frequently suck the sap of only one or a few kinds of plants. Besides stunting plant growth by causing loss of sap, some leafhoppers introduce a toxin into the plant as they feed; others introduce disease organisms.

The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a serious pest in the E United States. It causes a disease commonly known as hopperburn on potatoes and damages many other plants, including apples, beans, and clover. As a result of the potato leafhopper's attack, the leaf's conducting tissue is plugged; the plant leaves curl and begin to turn brown near the tip, and eventually the whole leaf appears blighted. As many as 5 to 6 million leafhoppers may be found per acre. Other leafhopper pests include the beet leafhopper, which causes the beet disease known as curly top in the W United States; the grape leafhopper; the rose leafhopper; and the apple leafhopper.

Many leafhoppers have a single generation per year, but there may be several. They overwinter either in the adult or egg stage, depending on the species. Eggs are laid singly or a few at a time in stems and leaves. The adults overwinter only in the south; those migrating north each year cause much damage, but are usually killed by the frost.

Leafhoppers are classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Cicadellidae.

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leafhopper

[′lēf‚häp·ər]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for members of the homopteran family Cicadellidae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Impact of neonicotinoid seed treatment of cotton on the cotton leaf hopper, Amrasca devastans (Hemiptera: Cicadelliae), and its natural enimies.
Rice cultivars, Tjempo Kijik, Utri Merah an Utri Rajapan exhibited limited resistance to leaf hoppers but recorded low score against RTD indicating their resistance to the tungro viruses.
Tyalo and Bernardo (1995) determined that density of trichomes had significant and negative correlation with the emergence of leaf hopper. A resistant variety can provide a foundation for integrated control system against insect pests.
All the conventional insecticides were found effective against potato leaf hopper. The order of effectiveness was found to be imidacloprid greater than endosulfan greater than profenofos i.e.
Biology, feeding behaviour and damage of cotton leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) on susceptible and resistant varieties of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.
(1990), who reported that the relative humidity had no significant contribution towards increasing or decreasing the leaf hopper numbers, but these findings are contradicted with those of Bishnoi et al.
For example, it is known that leaf hoppers in cotton and legume fields are hard to reach with insecticidal sprays because they reside on the underside of the lowest leaves of the plant.
The main problems are controlling weeds and pests, such as leaf hoppers and powdery mildew.
In 2008 large numbers of leaf hoppers were reported to be "killing" flamboyant trees Delonix regia in Durban (Cole 2008).
A bulk of Pop 63 SR was planted at IITA, Ibadan (7[degrees]38' N, 3[degrees]93' E), Nigeria and [S.sub.0] plants were infested with viruliferous leaf hoppers (Cicadulina spp.) about 9 d after planting.
Though sometimes mistakenly called locusts, cicadas are actually related to plant-sucking aphids and leaf hoppers.
Its target pests are aphids, caterpillars, mites and rice leaf hoppers. It is prepared by chopping and soaking 500g of turmeric rhizomes overnight.