breast

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breast:

see mammary glandmammary gland,
organ of the female mammal that produces and secretes milk for the nourishment of the young. A mammal may have from 1 to 11 pairs of mammary glands, depending on the species. Generally, those mammals that bear larger litters have more glands.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Breast

The human mammary gland, usually well developed in the adult female but rudimentary in the male. Each adult female breast contains 15–20 separate, branching glands that radiate from the nipple. During lactation their secretions are discharged through separate openings at the base of the nipple.

In the female, hormonal changes in adolescence cause enlargement of breast tissue, but much of this is connective tissue although some glandular buds form. With the advent of full menstruation ovarian estrogenic hormones influence breast development. If pregnancy ensues, the glandular tissue reaches full development and full lactation begins shortly after birth. After cessation of lactation the breasts regress considerably and once again reflect cyclic regulation. See Lactation

Breast disorders may result from congenital or developmental abnormalities, inflammations, hormonal imbalances, and, most important, from tumor formation.

Congenital defects are usually unimportant except for their psychic or cosmetic implications. Supernumerary nipples and breasts or accessory breast tissue are common examples.

Inflammations are not encountered frequently and usually result from a staphylococcal or streptococcal invasion incurred during lactation. A special form of inflammation may result from fat necrosis. Although any age is susceptible, older women show a slightly higher incidence of fat necrosis, the commonest cause of which is injury from trauma. See Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Syphilis, Tuberculosis

Hormonal imbalances are believed to be responsible for the variants of the commonest nontumorous breast disorder of women, cystic hyperplasia. The changes are thought to result from exaggeration or distortion of the normal cyclic alterations induced during the menstrual interval. Although a wide range of clinical and pathologic variation is commonplace, three major types or tendencies prevail. The first, called fibrosis or mastodynia, is marked by an increase of connective tissue in the breast, without a proportionate increase in glandular epithelium. The second, cystic disease, is characterized by an increase in the glandular and connective tissues in local areas, with a tendency toward formation of cysts varying in size. The third major type is adenosis, in which glandular hyperplasia is predominant. Each major form of cystic hyperplasia has its own clinical characteristics, ages of highest incidence, and distribution. Each is important because the breast masses which occur require differentiation from benign and malignant tumors. These lesions also have been found to predispose to the subsequent development of carcinoma.

Breast cancer is the most significant lesion of the female breast, accounting for 25,000–30,000 deaths in the United States each year. It rarely occurs before the age of 25, but its incidence increases each year thereafter, with a sharper climb noted about the time of menopause. Early breast cancer may appear as a small, firm mass which is nontender and freely movable. Diagnosis at this time carries a more favorable prognosis than later, when immobility, nipple retraction, lymph node involvement, and other signs of extension or spread are noted. Paget's disease of the nipple is a special form of breast cancer, in which there are early skin changes about the nipple. See Hormone

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Breast

That portion of a wall between the floor and a window above; a defensive wall built about breast high.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

breast

[brest]
(anatomy)
The human mammary gland.
(mining engineering)
In coal mines, a chamber driven in the seam from the gangway, for the extraction of coal.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

breast

1. A projecting part of a wall, as at a chimney.
2. That portion of a wall between the floor and a window above.
3. The underside of a handrail, beam, rafter, or the like.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

breast

symbol of nourishment and fecundity. [Ren. Art: Hall, 52]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

breast

1. the front part of the body from the neck to the abdomen; chest
2. either of the two soft fleshy milk-secreting glands on the chest in sexually mature human females
3. a similar organ in certain other mammals
4. a projection from the side of a wall, esp that formed by a chimney
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Breasts

(dreams)
Dreaming about breasts can have obvious sexual meaning. However, consider all of the details in your dream in order to obtain the most appropriate meaning. Breasts also represent tenderness, love, and other matters of the heart. Breastfeeding is symbolic of giving or receiving, nurturing, and sustenance. It represents motherly love as well as physical and emotional support and well being. Old dream interpretation books say that breastfeeding is a symbol of great things to come following an extended period of hard work.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
And nine years after my left breast was removed, I was declared cancer-free in 2015," she said.
PET/CT demonstrated intense FDG uptake within the left breast (Figures 3A,B), intense FDG uptake in left axillary and subpectoral lymph nodes, and mild to moderate FDG uptake in the expected location of the left brachial plexus (Figure 3C).
Case 2: In February of 2011, a 49-year-old Caucasian female was found to have an invasive ductal carcinoma along with a welldifferentiated tubular type carcinoma of the left breast. This was found from a biopsy that was performed due to a diagnostic mammogram BI-RADS score of 5.
On August 2015, a mastectomy was conducted and she lost her left breast.
A 35-year-old female patient presented to the general surgery department with pain in the left breast. She had a history of a gunshot wound in the breast four months ago, shortly after which the symptoms had started.
Further similar operations were carried out by Paterson in 2001 and 2003, with the surgeon saying the growths were pre-cancerous, and telling her cancer in her left breast was "inevitable".
A 59-year-old female patient referred with palpable, longstanding (over 10 years) mass in the periphery of left breast that was remarkable with pain for the last 8 months.
There was no significant difference over time in sensation changes for the right breast (p=0.1063), but there was a significant reduction for the left breast over the same period of time (p=0.0159 both Fishers Exact test).
On examination, multiple indurated nodules and plaques were present over the left breast, the left retroauricular area, the scapular region and the neck (Figure 1, 2).