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android

(in science fiction) a robot resembling a human being

Android

An operating system for smartphones, tablets and laptops from the Google-sponsored Open Handset Alliance. With myriad models to choose from, Android is the leading mobile platform with approximately 85% of the worldwide smartphone market. Combining mobile and desktop platforms, more devices with the Android operating system are currently in operation than any other OS.

Android is a Linux OS, and apps are programmed in Java. Users download applications from Google's Play Store (formerly Android Market), the Amazon Appstore and other online sources (see Google Play and Amazon Appstore).

The first Android smartphone came out in 2008 and quickly became a major competitor to the iPhone due to its availability from multiple carriers and numerous handset manufacturers. In addition, Androids could multitask, whereas iPhones could not at that time. By 2011, Android outsold every other smartphone. Androids were the first smartphones with large screens (see phablet).

Like Windows vs. Mac
Like Windows computers, Android hardware is made by many different manufacturers. Also like Windows, Android vendors can add their own set of apps and different interface features to their phones (see app launcher). In contrast, like the Mac, the iPhone, iPad and iPod are made only by Apple. They feature one interface, one set of included apps and only a few current models. See iPhone vs. Android, how to select a mobile device, Open Handset Alliance, AOSP, Android fragmentation, mobile compatibility and mobile device vendor control.

The Google Phone
In 2005, Google acquired Android, Inc. and two years later unveiled smartphone specifications for third-party manufacturers. In 2010, Google began to offer "pure Android" versions, devoid of vendor add-ons (see Google Nexus and Pixel phone). When it acquired Motorola Mobility in 2012, Google became a phone manufacturer itself. However, in less than two years, Google sold the company to Lenovo while retaining numerous patents. See Android camera, Android rooting, Android laptop, Android antivirus program, Chromecast, Android TV, Galaxy S, HTC G1 and smartphone.


Early Models
After T-Mobile introduced the first Android phone in 2008, other carriers and vendors followed, eventually introducing more than a thousand models. See GSM and CDMA.







No Phones on These Androids
In 2009, the ARCHOS entertainment center (top) and Barnes & Noble e-book reader were some of the first Androids sans phone. Soon after, myriad Android tablets and devices were introduced. (Images courtesy of ARCHOS and Barnesandnoble.com)


No Phones on These Androids
In 2009, the ARCHOS entertainment center (top) and Barnes & Noble e-book reader were some of the first Androids sans phone. Soon after, myriad Android tablets and devices were introduced. (Images courtesy of ARCHOS and Barnesandnoble.com)
References in periodicals archive ?
The hexapod robot is a six legged robot with 3 degree of freedom in each leg.
"Integrated ground reaction force sensing and terrain classification for small legged robots." IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters.
On-line stable gait generation of a two legged robot using Genetic--Fuzzy system, Journal of Robotics and Automation Systems, Vol.
Two main kinds of approaches have been presented to optimize the energy efficiency for legged robots: the first type focuses on the improvements of mechanical device [11-14] and the second type is devoted to better optimization algorithm [15-19].
Other subjects explored include modeling of a legged robot based on observation of Colombian insects, robotic architecture for hepatic biopsies, developing a virtual environment for safety training, and correction methods and algorithms for inertial navigation systems working inside of pipelines.
The human-carrying walking chair robot, which is different from the wheeled robot and the ordinary legged robot, not only needs to steadily walk by using leg mechanism as supporting point [2, 3], but also needs to bear weight from itself and different passengers [4].
This GUI is developed in Java and is essential in development motions for the legged robot. The friendly interface, allows any user to define and test movements for this robot.
This application is developed in Java and is essential in development motions for the legged robot. The application is released as free software under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and was conceived modular (see Fig.
CM-Pack'01: Fast Legged Robot Walking, Robust Localization, and Team Behaviors.
One survey of military robotics scientists found that Japan and Europe are ahead of the United States in legged robot research.
This task required basic skills for the legged robot league, which are to find the ball and move the ball into the goal.
Four robot leagues: These leagues are the small-size robot, the middle-size robot, the Sony legged robot, and the robot rescue.