Leishmania

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Related to Leishmania braziliensis: Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania tropica

Leishmania

[lēsh′man·ē·ə]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of flagellated protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of several diseases of humans, such as leishmaniasis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Leishmania

 

a genus of protozoans of the class Mastigophora.

Several species of Leishmania are known, although most are parasites of reptiles. Three species (L. donovani, L. tropica, and L. brasiliensis) are intracellular parasites of man and some animals, such as dogs. The organisms are transmitted by bloodsucking insects (sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus). L. donovani and L. tropica are found in the tropics and subtropics of Eurasia; L. brasiliensis is found in Central and South America. L. donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a serious disease of man that is widespread in India, China, and Sumatra; in the USSR, it appears from time to time in Middle Asia.

Leishmanias localize in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system, including those of the lymph nodes. The body is pear-shaped, 2–4 µm long, and has one nucleus and a kinetoplast. In the body of the animal host, the organism develops into a flagellate leptornonad form.

L. tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Penjdeh sore), is morphologically similar to L. donovani. In the USSR, it is found in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia.

IU. I. POLIANSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Marsden, "Clinical characteristics of human Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infections," Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.
Bafica et al., "Neutrophils and macrophages cooperate in host resistance against Leishmania braziliensis infection," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Leishmania braziliensis amastigotes stimulate production of IL-1[beta], IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-p by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonendemic area healthy residents.
Pacheco, "Leishmaniasis disseminated by Leishmania braziliensis in a mare (Equus cabalus) immunotherapy and chemotherapy assays," Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.
Detection of Leishmania braziliensis in naturaliy infected sandflies by the polymerase chain reaction.
El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanolicos (EM) de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacon (tambien conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp.), sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana.
Promedio del numero de amastigotes por celula y el porcentaje de infeccion de Leishmania braziliensis y Leishmania chagasi en cultivos celulares de Aedes aegypti y J774 Ae.
New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by organisms of the Leishmania braziliensis complex and the Leishmania mexicana complex.
Drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment, although in too many cases it is not delivered or taken in adequate amounts." Among the many agents that have been used are pentavalent antimonials (which cause some systemic toxicity and are used to treat the mucocutaneous form), pentamidine, amphotericin B (which is used primarily for visceral leishmaniasis), paromomycin (used for the visceral and cutaneous forms), cytokines such as interferon gamma (used for some mucocutaneous forms, including those caused by Leishmania braziliensis strains), oral antifungals such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole (which are well tolerated), and hipoxanthine (which inhibits purine anabolism and slows Leishmania proliferation).

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