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(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of flagellated protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of several diseases of humans, such as leishmaniasis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a genus of protozoans of the class Mastigophora.

Several species of Leishmania are known, although most are parasites of reptiles. Three species (L. donovani, L. tropica, and L. brasiliensis) are intracellular parasites of man and some animals, such as dogs. The organisms are transmitted by bloodsucking insects (sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus). L. donovani and L. tropica are found in the tropics and subtropics of Eurasia; L. brasiliensis is found in Central and South America. L. donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a serious disease of man that is widespread in India, China, and Sumatra; in the USSR, it appears from time to time in Middle Asia.

Leishmanias localize in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system, including those of the lymph nodes. The body is pear-shaped, 2–4 µm long, and has one nucleus and a kinetoplast. In the body of the animal host, the organism develops into a flagellate leptornonad form.

L. tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Penjdeh sore), is morphologically similar to L. donovani. In the USSR, it is found in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Novel finding of Leishmania major in Hemiechinus auritus and molecular detection of this parasite in Meriones libycus from important foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.
The potency and durability of DNA-and protein-based vaccines against Leishmania major evaluated using low-dose, interadermal challenge.
Kharazmi, "The major surface glycoprotein (gp63) from Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani cleaves CD4 molecules on human T cells," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Leishmania major LV 561 (MHOM/IL/67/LRC-L137 JERICHO II) were stored in the overlay with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide in liquid nitrogen as subculture 0.
Worthey et al., "The genome of the kinetoplastid parasite, Leishmania major" Science, vol.
Fluconazole for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. N Engl J Med.
Modulation of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin activity by a mitogen-activated protein kinase.
Leishmania major RYN strain parasites were used for infections.
Glutathione protects macrophages and Leishmania major against nitric oxide-mediated cytotoxicity.
[7] Negin torabi, mendi mohebali, ahmad reza shahverdi, seyed mendi rezayat, gholam hossein edrissian, jamileh esmaeili, sorour charehdar, Nanogold for the trearment of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania major [MRHO/IR/75/ER]: an animal trial with methanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
Immunohistochemical Examination.--The following monoclonal antibodies were kindly provided for this experiment by Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease, World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland): IS2-2B4 (A11), specific for Leishmania tropica, and XLVI-5B8- B3 (T1) (Hamburg, Germany), specific for Leishmania major. (10,11)

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