Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization

 

an independent mass communist organization of children and adolescents from ten to 15 years old. The practical direction of the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization has been assigned by the CPSU to the All-Union Lenin Communist Youth League (Komsomol, or VLKSM). Communist education of the Pioneers is carried out by the Komsomol in close harmony with the school and in cooperation with the family and with tradeunion, creative, sports, defense, and other social organizations and state institutions. The basis of the Pioneer organization is laid out in a statute which defines the principal tasks and structure of the organization, conditions for acceptance into it, and obligations and rights of Pioneers and which includes the Laws for Young Pioneers, the Ceremonial Pledge of the Young Pioneer, and the Regulations for the Little Octobrists. The highest organ of the Pioneers is the Central Council of the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization, which operates under the direction of the Central Committee of the VLKSM. The basic organizational unit of the Pioneers is the brigade. In 1970 there were more than 118,000 brigades with a total membership of 23 million.

The Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization trains the Pioneers to be devoted to the cause of the Communist Party, as well as faithful to the revolutionary, military, and labor traditions of the Soviet people. It also imparts to the young Leninists a love for their socialist homeland and an implacable hatred for its enemies and trains them to defend their native land. The Pioneer organization links its activity indissolubly with the life of the Soviet people and their struggle to build communism. The basic principles of the Pioneer organization’s activity are a sociopolitical tendency, voluntary membership in the organization and active participation in its projects, independence of the Pioneers combined with professional educational guidance, consideration of the age and individual characteristics of the children, the continuity and systematic character of Pioneer groups’ activity, and extensive use of the elements of a romantic sense of adventure and games. Work in detachments and brigades is done with a consideration of local conditions and national traditions.

The creation, establishment, and development of the children’s communist movement in the USSR is inextricably linked with the activity of the Communist Party and the name of Lenin. The Party regards the children’s communist movement as a part of the entire system of communist education. Lenin’s program speech at the Third Congress of the Russian Communist Youth League (RKSM; October 1920) laid the foundation for all the activity of the Party and the Komsomol in educating rising generations.

By developing the Leninist principles of communist education, the CPSU has worked out the basic problems of theory and practice in the Pioneer movement. In the resolutions of the Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Sixteenth Party Congresses, in a number of special decrees of the Central Committee of the Party on the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization, and in the Program of the CPSU, the principal goals of the Pioneers have been defined, as well as the place and role of Pioneer groups in the system of communist education, the forms and methods of working with Pioneers, and the interrelationships between the Pioneer organization, the school, and social organizations. In the decree “On the Pioneer Movement” passed by the Organization Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (Bolshevik) on Aug. 4, 1924, it was pointed out that ideological supervision from the Communist Party must ensure the fulfillment of the basic task of the children’s Pioneer movement—to be a school for communist education. This decree emphasized that the Pioneer organization must be built on the principle of the children’s independence, with firm, practical guidance from adults and consideration of the experience and requirements of revolutionary teaching. The Communist Party warned the Pioneer organization against copying adult forms of work, overburdening the children, and putting the Pioneers in opposition to the schools. In a decree of Apr. 21, 1932, “On the Work of the Pioneer Organization,” the Central Committee of the RCP (Bolshevik) decisively condemned attempts to eliminate the Pioneer movement by merging it with the schools and condemned the misinterpretations that advocated the transfer of the schools’ educational functions to the Pioneer movement.

Among the prominent members of the CPSU and Soviet government who participated directly in guiding the Pioneer movement were M. I. Kalinin, N. K. Krupskaia, S. M. Kirov, F. E. Dzerzhinskii, E. M. laroslavskii, N. I. Podvoiskii, A. V. Lunacharskii, A. S. Bubnov, V. V. Kuibyshev, M. V. Frunze, K. E. Voroshilov, P. P. Post-yshev, A. A. Andreev, and M. N. Pokrovskii.

Under contemporary conditions the role of the children’s communist organization is considerably greater. In its decree “On the 50th Anniversary of the VLKSM and Goals for the Communist Education of Youth” (1968) the Central Committee of the CPSU emphasized that the VLKSM committees and teachers’ groups should pay more attention to Pioneer organizations, attempt to make the life of each brigade and detachment ideologically full, attractive, and varied, develop in the Pioneers the aspiration for knowledge and work, and consider more fully in their work with the Pioneers the psychological traits and interests of the children.

The emergence of the children’s communist movement in the USSR is historically linked with the revolutionary movement of the toiling people. After the victory of the October Revolution, children’s organizations, groups, and societies were founded in various cities throughout the country. Taking into consideration the importance of the children’s communist movement in educating the rising generation, the Communist Party assigned the Komsomol to create a single children’s communist organization. At the end of 1921 the Central Committee of the RKSM established a special commission to work out a program, principles of operation, statutes, a motto, regulations, and organizational bases for a new children’s organization. N. K. Krupskaia, who made an important contribution to the development of the theory and methods of the Pioneer movement, participated directly on this commission. On May 19, 1922, the Second All-Russian Conference of the Komsomol adopted a resolution on the creation of Pioneer detachments throughout the country. This day is marked as the birthday of the All-Union Pioneer Organization. In October 1922 the Fifth All-Russian Congress of the RKSM decreed the unification of all Pioneer detachments that had been organized in Moscow, Petrograd, Tula, the Urals, and other places into a children’s communist organization—the Spartacus Young Pioneers. On Jan. 21, 1924, a resolution of the Central Committee of the Komsomol named the Pioneer organization after Lenin. In connection with this, a Pioneer parade was held on May 23, 1924, on Red Square in Moscow before the delegates to the Thirteenth Congress of the RCP (Bolshevik); on this occasion the young Pioneers took an oath of fidelity to the cause of Lenin and the Communist Party. Following the Seventh Congress of the Komsomol in March 1926, at which a decree was passed renaming the Russian Communist Youth League the All-Union Lenin Communist Youth League, the Pioneers were called the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization.

The first Pioneer detachments, which united primarily children of workers and peasants, operated under Komsomol cells in plants, factories, and other institutions (according to the place where the Pioneers lived). The detachments had to struggle against the remnants of the Scouts’ organizations, which had existed in tsarist Russia and had been disbanded by a decree of the Second All-Russian Congress of the RKSM (October 1919). Pioneer detachments took part in Communist Saturdays and helped members of the Komsomol to combat lack of supervision and homelessness among children and to eliminate illiteracy. At the end of 1923 outposts and bases began to be established in the schools to bring together Pioneers of a given school, regardless of their place of residence. By mid-1923 the Pioneer organization included up to 75,000 members, and at the beginning of 1924, more than 161,000 members and about 10,000 outposts. By mid-1926 it had more than 45,000 detachments, including approximately 2 million Pioneers.

In August 1929 the First All-Union Rally of Pioneers was held in Moscow, showing the enormous political activity of the All-Union Pioneer Organization. In 1930 in a report to the Sixteenth Congress of the ACP (Bolshevik) the Pioneers stated that they had taught 1 million illiterate people to read and write and had delivered several thousand radio receivers, more than 500,000 books, and so forth to Pioneer-sponsored villages.

During the 1930’s a mass movement of young naturalists developed in Pioneer detachments; all-Union expeditions were conducted to study the nature of native regions. Young Pioneers participated actively in geological field trips, collected funds for purchasing tractors and combines, and established patrols to protect harvests and kolkhoz property. Among the Pioneer heroes who perished in the struggle against the kulaks during 1932-33 were Pavlik Morozov, Kolia Miagotin, Kolia lakovlev, and Kychan Dzhakylov. Their names have been entered in the Book of Honor of the All-Union Pioneer Organization.

By the end of the 1930’s the reconstruction of the Pioneer organization had been completed according to the so-called school principle, with a class forming a detachment and an entire school forming a Pioneer brigade. Military defense work developed in Pioneer groups; circles of young marksmen, orderlies, and signalers were formed, and military games were conducted. Pioneers raised service dogs and horses for the troops of the Soviet Army. Among the groups of Pioneers who received government awards for their assistance to kolkhozes in the struggle for greater harvests and the development of livestock breeding in 1935 were Mamlakat Nakhangova (Tadzhikistan), the Order of Lenin; and Ishan Kadyrov and Khavakhan Atakulova (Tadzhikistan), Aleksei Fadeev (Leningrad Oblast), Barasbi Khamgokov (Kabardinia), Mamed Gasanov (Dagestan), Vasilii Vozniuk (the Ukraine), Buza Shamzhanova (Kazakhstan), and others, the Order of the Badge of Honor. In 1940 the All-Union Pioneer Organization had 13.9 million members.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the Timur mass movement developed throughout the country, associated with the writer A. P. Gaidar and his novella Timur and His Crew. Young Pioneers helped families with men at the front; collected medicinal herbs, scrap metal, and funds for tank columns and air squadrons; served in hospitals; and harvested crops. For the courage and heroism that they showed in the fight against the fascist German invaders the Pioneers Lenia Golikov, Marat Kazei, Valia Kotik, and Zina Portnova were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union; thousands of Pioneers were awarded orders and medals.

In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s the Pioneer organization took part in the rebuilding of ruined cities and villages. The Pioneer movement called Let’s Beautify the Homeland With Gardens was founded, and all-Union expeditions were conducted for the study of native regions. However, the work of certain Pioneer groups began to be limited by the framework of the school, and at times the diverse activity of a Pioneer organization was replaced by ceremonial assemblies. Often the Pioneer work of a detachment was identical with academic classwork. The eighth plenum of the Central Committee of the VLKSM (1957) adopted the resolution “On Measures for Improving the Work of the Lenin Pioneer Organization,” in which it indicated that the main goal of the Pioneer organization is the large-scale attraction of Pioneers to active sociopolitical work and primarily to socially useful labor. The plenum emphasized that the forms and methods of the Pioneer organization’s activity must be distinguished from the forms and methods of curricular work in school and that the activity of Pioneer brigades should not be limited by the framework of the school.

In 1960 the Central Council of the All-Russian Pioneer Organization adopted a resolution on conducting a two-year Pioneer labor plan—Pioneers for the Homeland—devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Pioneer organization. During two years the Pioneers collected 1 million tons of scrap metal and planted greenery along hundreds of kilometers of highways. So-called zones of Pioneer action—a form of work done by the Pioneers near their place of residence—began to be established throughout the country. Pioneer brigades carried out various types of socially useful and cultural mass work in the microregion of the school. In the Pioneer organization combined detachments and brigades were founded, uniting Pioneers of various ages during their vacations. Also founded were detachments based on interests—young friends of border guards, firemen, policemen, and so forth. In many schools Leninist museums and halls were opened, as well as rooms of military glory and monuments to young heroes. The Komsomol organizations sent more than 200,000 leaders and circle and section guides from the factories to Pioneer detachments.

In 1962 the All-Union Pioneer Organization was awarded the Order of Lenin for the great deal of work it had done in the communist education of children as well as in connection with its 40th anniversary. During the summer of 1962 the Second All-Union Rally of Young Pioneers was held in Artek. During 1964-67 there was an all-Union inspection of Pioneer brigades called Shine, Leninist Stars, which was devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Great October Revolution. The results of this inspection were summed up at the Third All-Union Rally of Pioneers, which was held at Artek in August 1967. After thoroughly analyzing the work experience of the best Pioneer groups, the second plenum of the Central Committee of the VLKSM (1967) adopted the resolution “On the Further Improvement of the Activity of the VLKSM in Directing the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization.” At industrial enterprises, in construction and transportation, and at kolkhozes, sovkhozes, military units, and higher educational institutions the attention of Komsomol organizations was focused on a differentiated approach to the activity of Pioneer brigades, which are varied in their character and conditions of work. Scientific development of the problems of the children’s movement began to be implemented more profoundly and systematically at teacher-training institutions, the social science departments of higher educational institutions, and sociological laboratories. In 1967 the Bureau of the Central Committee of the VLKSM ratified the “Recommendations on the Content and Method of Working with Pioneers of Various Ages”—the Orienter Program, designed for leaders, teachers, workers in extracurricular institutions, and Pioneer councils. The Orienter Program, which was drawn up with consideration of the traits of various age groups of Pioneers, permitted systematic broadening of the circle of activities of Pioneer groups, differentiation of the forms and methods of their work, and a constant increase in the responsibility of each Pioneer for the work done by his own group.

The Sixteenth Congress of the VLKSM (1970) adopted an appeal to all Pioneers in the USSR in connection with the preparation for the 50th anniversary of the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization. The appeal, resolutions of the congress, and recommendations in the section “The Komsomol, the Pioneer Organization, and the School” provided a concrete program for the activity of the Pioneer organization in its present stage and indicated ways to increase the role of the Pioneer groups in improving the teaching and educational process in the schools. The congress paid particular attention to the problems of training cadres of Pioneer workers.

During 1968-70 on the initiative of the Pioneer organizations of Ul’ianovsk, Leningrad, Moscow, Kazan, and Gorky, the All-Union Pioneer Organization conducted an expedition called Faithful to the Legacy of Lenin, devoted to the 100th anniversary of Lenin’s birthday. The Pioneers established Lenin museums and halls in the schools, traveled to places frequented by Lenin, studied the history of enterprises, kolkhozes, and sovkhozes named after Lenin, and met with old communists and heroes of labor who had been awarded the Order of Lenin. The Pioneers collected enough scrap metal to manufacture 100,000 tractors. Pioneer brigades began Operation Chukotka—the collection of funds to build a Pioneer palace in the city of Anadyr’. The results of the Faithful to Lenin’s Legacy expedition were summarized in the summer of 1970 in Leningrad at the Fourth All-Union Rally of Pioneers, which gave a start to an all-Union march of Pioneer detachments, devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Pioneer organization. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 24 Pioneers—delegates to the Fourth All-Union Rally of Pioneers and representatives of all the Union republics, who had showed persistence in mastering their studies, industriousness, initiative, and creativity—were awarded the Jubilee Medal for Meritorious Labor: In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of Lenin’s Birthday. Their names were entered in the Book of Honor of the Pioneer organization.

For their successes in learning and socially useful activity and their heroic deeds and bold actions, more than 500 young Pioneers, Pioneer detachments, brigades, and city, oblast, and republic Pioneer organizations were entered as of 1970 in the Pioneer organization’s Book of Honor, which had been established in 1954. The names of Pioneer heroes were given to many city and village streets, schools, ships, and so forth.

A concrete example of the independent nature of the Pioneer organization is Pioneer self-government (councils of detachments and brigades, raion and city staffs of young Pioneers, and periodic assemblies). Each detachment has representatives in the active membership of the brigade, and the brigade has representatives on the city and raion staffs. In order to attract a great number of Pioneers to active participation in self-government and matters of Pioneer organization, various staffs and commissions have been created in affiliation with the brigade councils and raion staffs. Pioneer self-government helps children to acquire organizational habits, acquaints them with democratism, and teaches them how to carry out social tasks. The Pioneer assembly is the highest organ of a brigade or detachment, at which the Pioneers resolve problems confronting the group, summarize the results of their work, elect the Pioneer self-government, and indicate and confirm plans for the future. The subject matter of these assemblies is varied and extensive, and the places where they are held vary (schools, enterprises, and museums).

One of the most effective methods of teaching communist awareness, independence, and collectivism among Pioneers is competition, which includes specific types of activity of the Pioneer groups or has a general nature (competitions for the best detachment, brigade, city organization, and so forth).

The specific character and uniqueness of the Pioneer organization as a children’s independent organization provide for its close ties with all units in the system of the communist education of the rising generation and particularly with the school, whose extracurricular work in grades one through eight is basically structured through the Pioneer organization.

In perfecting the children’s group as an instrument to be used in shaping the all-around personality of a child, the Pioneer organization has become an increasingly important factor, influencing the ideological tempering of children and adolescents, bringing them into active participation in sociopolitical life, and teaching them organizational habits. By facilitating the shaping of the children’s civic awareness, the Pioneer organization gives their projects a political character and educates them in revolutionary ideals and fidelity to the traditions of older generations. It helps the young Pioneers to fulfill the Laws of the Young Pioneers by concrete actions in their daily lives and to prepare themselves to become members of the VLKSM. The political nature of the Pioneer organization’s activity is inherent in all the aspects of its work in educating the young citizen.

The Pioneer organization acquaints children with the life and activity of Lenin, his colleagues, and prominent figures in the international communist movement, as well as the history of the Communist Party and the Lenin Komsomol. Pioneers write reports on plants, kolkhozes, and Komsomol shock brigade construction projects, and they study the life of the hero for whom their detachment or brigade is named. Using funds of Pioneer brigades, monuments to Pioneers and their leader-heroes have been established throughout the country, and the A. P. Gaidar Library Museum has been built in the city of Kanev (Ukraine). In educating children in the spirit of internationalism, the All-Union Pioneer Organization conducts large-scale political campaigns and solidarity meetings. Every Pioneer group in the country participated in the international action, Pioneers of the USSR for Vietnam. (Vietnamese children received two shiploads of gifts from Soviet children.)

Operating in Pioneer brigades are circles and clubs of international friendship, in which the Pioneers learn about the life of foreign children’s organizations and carry on a group correspondence with persons of their own age from other countries. They also organize confrontation and correspondence competitions and contests, games, friendship evenings, and campfires with Pioneers from other Union and autonomous republics, and joint excursions and expeditions. Upon receiving labor assignments from the Party and Komsomol organizations, scientific research institutes, and local soviets, the Pioneer detachments and brigades draw Pioneers into feasible work for the benefit of the homeland. On the initiative of Pioneer organizations mass work is done on Sun-days to improve cities and villages, and geological field trips are undertaken. Pioneer brigades take an active part in protecting nature and the monuments of the past and are active everywhere in so-called Green Patrols, Pioneer Forest Projects, and Blue Patrols. Great popularity has been attained by the Pioneer military game entitled Summer Lightning, by participation in which the Pioneers acquire special skills and habits, study the history of the Soviet armed forces, establish museums of military glory, and have meetings with servicemen. Among the traditional Pioneer mass sports games and competitions are Golden Puck, Leather Ball, White Rook, Signal Light, ski races for the Pionerskaia pravda Prize, and the four-event track-and-field competition, Friendship. The Pioneer organization conducts all-Union competitions of young rocketeers and airplane model-makers for the lu. A. Gagarin Prize and the V. M. Komarov Prize. It draws children into scientific-technical circles and societies and organizes schools for young cosmonauts and pilots. Based on extracurricular institutions in the schools, clubs, and palaces of culture, Pioneer organizations have created circles of amateur artistic activity, song and dance ensembles, choruses, and amateur theaters. World-famous Pioneer amateur groups include the V. S. Loktev Ensemble of the Moscow Pioneer Palace (awarded the Lenin Komsomol Prize in 1967), the graphic studio workshop attached to the Lenin-grad Pioneer Palace, and the dance group of the Baku Pioneer Palace. The Pioneer organization conducts all-Union festivals of the arts and exhibitions of creative work by children.

By organizing various activities for the Pioneers and developing their individual interests and inclinations, Pioneer brigades help schools and teachers to inculcate in students a responsible attitude toward their studies. They also help the students to make a conscious choice of their future occupation, and they attract students into subject-matter circles and scientific societies.

In order to increase the role of the Komsomol and Pioneer organizations in implementing the transition to universal secondary education, strengthening the educational material base, and further improving teaching in the village schools, the Central Committee of the VLKSM announced the all-Union two-year plan called Komsomol for the Village School, and during 1971-75, a five-year plan for sponsorship of the village schools. Pioneer detachments and brigades participate in the construction, equipping, and repair of schools, work at posts in universal, compulsory education, and sponsor preschool institutions.

The work of the All-Union Pioneer Organization is structured with consideration of the national and local characteristics of republic, krai, and oblast Pioneer organizations. In their participation in Pioneer activity (work projects, competitions, inspections, and so forth) republic Pioneer organizations set before the young Pioneers tasks that are connected with the life of the Union republics: the Pioneers of the Ukraine are responsible for helping with the Komsomol shock brigade construction projects; the Pioneers of Uzbekistan have created Pioneer patrols to help cultivate cotton; the young Leninists of Byelorussia are studying the history of the partisan territory; and Pioneer brigades in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Leningrad, and Kaliningrad are conducting Operation Baltic Sea—the Sea of Friendship. Among the Pioneers of Georgia a movement has developed for the preservation of monuments of antiquity. In Kazakhstan there is the republic-level game of the young friends of the border guards.

Pioneers of the Far North carry on traditional competitions in their own national sports.

Pioneer brigades and detachments establish Little Octobrist groups in grades one through three; as of 1970 about 14 million children belonged to these groups. The work of the Little Octobrist groups is structured on the basis of the Regulations of the Little Octobrists, with extensive use of games.

The Soviet state shows constant concern for strengthening the material base of the Pioneer organization and developing extracurricular institutions. In the USSR in 1970 there were more than 3,500 palaces and houses for Pioneers and school-children; more than 900 stations for young technicians, young naturalists, and travelers; 33 children’s railroads; two river steamboat lines; the Moscow Pioneer automobile route; and more than 7,500 tradeunion Pioneer camps located out-side the cities. In 1970 more than 18 million Pioneers and schoolchildren took their vacation in camps, excursion-tourist bases, and children’s sanatoriums. The Artek All-Union Pioneer Camp is world-famous. In a number of Union republics Pioneer camps have been opened: Little Eagle (RSFSR), Young Guard (Ukrainian SSR), Little Bison (Byelorussian SSR), and others.

The All-Union Pioneer Organization has 28 Pioneer newspapers published in the Union republics and several autonomous republics in 19 national languages of the peoples of the USSR (with a total single-run circulation of more than 17 million). Among the Pioneer publications are the newspaper Pionerskaia pravda—the central organ of the Central Committee of the VLKSM and the Central Council of the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization; and 35 Pioneer children’s magazines—Pioner, Koster, lunyi tekhnik, lunyi naturalist, and others. The methodological journal Vozhatyi is published for leaders and other Pioneer workers. The all-Union radio and television systematically organize special programs for Pioneers, the radio-newspaper Pionerskaia zor’ka is broad-cast daily, and the Orlenok television studio has been established at the Central Television Network. Every month the newsreel studio issues the documentary film journal Pioneriia. The children’s press, radio, and television conduct all-Union games and competitions, contests, and so-called Olympics.

In 1970 more than 80,000 full-time, senior Pioneer leaders who had received training at republic schools for leaders were working in the All-Union Pioneer Organization. At the country’s 20 pedagogical institutions of higher education, training is being conducted for methodological specialists in Pioneer work, and 100 teachers’ training schools have opened Pioneer divisions. The All-Union Pioneer Organization attracts public-spirited persons who want to work with children near their place of residence in children’s sports, traveling, and technical clubs united by common interests.

Scientific solutions to the problems of the Pioneer movement are developed at scholarly research institutions of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, the sub-department of the theoretical principles of Pioneer work of the Advanced Komsomol School, which is affiliated with the Central Committee of the VLKSM, and the country’s pedagogical higher education institutions. The development of the theoretical principles of the Pioneer movement has been facilitated by conferences on scientific methodology. (All-Union conferences were held in 1930 and 1963.)

The All-Union Pioneer Organization, one of the detachments of the children’s international democratic movement, maintains ties with children’s democratic organizations from approximately 80 countries of the world. The Pioneer organization is a member of the International Committee of Children’s and Adolescent Organizations and actively participates in such activities as international campaigns, children’s contests, competitions, Olympics, and seminars and symposia of educational specialists, scholars, and Pioneer workers. On the Pioneer organization’s initiative, seminars for workers in children’s democratic organizations have been held in the USSR, including the conferences called the October Revolution and Children (1967) and Lenin and Children (1970). The Pioneer organization has exchanged so-called friendship trains with the Pioneer organizations of the socialist countries, accepted children from other coun-tries at Artek, sent Pioneer groups to international camps, and organized international meetings in the country’s border areas. At the Ninth World Festival of Youth and Students in Sofia (1968) the All-Union Pioneer Organization took part in the children’s program and was the first to organize a Pioneer friendship house. International matches between the children’s hockey and soccer teams of the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, and Czecho-slovakia have become traditional. Several times the Pioneer organization was the organizer of the finals of the Friendship four-event, international track-and-field competition, as well as international exhibitions of the best children’s drawings and photographs.

The experience of the All-Union Pioneer Organization has been used by the children’s democratic organizations of other countries. The Pioneer organization gives comprehensive aid to children’s organizations in many countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and other parts of the world in training their staffs and reinforcing their material bases.

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T. A. KUTSENKO and S. A. FURIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.