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see KumayriKumayri
or Gyumri
, formerly Leninakan
, city (1989 pop. 122,587), in Armenia, near the Turkish border. It has varied light manufactures. The old craft of rug making is practiced. Kumayri is the most important Armenian industrial center after Yerevan.
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, Armenia.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(before 1924, Aleksandropol’), a city in the Armenian SSR. It is situated on the Leninakan Plateau, at elevations of more than 1,500 m, and is bounded by mountains on the north and east. It is a junction for rail lines and highways. Population, 171,000 (1972; 42,000 in 1926, 68,000 in 1939, and 108,000 in 1959).

Leninakan is one of the oldest populated areas in Armenia. There was a settlement here as early as the fifth century B.C. Campaigns in the vicinity of Leninakan (the land of Eriakhi; in Armenian, Shirak) are mentioned repeatedly in Urartian chronicles of the eighth century B.C. Leninakan was a major settlement called Kumairi (Gumri) in the Middle Ages, and a Russian fortress was built on the site in 1837. In the late 19th century and the early 20th, it was an important proletarian center of Armenia; the workers of Leninakan participated in the Revolution of 1905–07. Soviet power was established on May 10, 1920; however, shortly thereafter, power was seized by the Dashnaks, who relied on the aid of the Anglo-American imperialists. Soviet power was reestablished in the city on Nov. 29, 1920, as a result of an armed uprising and the support of units of the Eleventh Red Army. During the prewar five-year plans the city became a large industrial center. (A textile combine, the largest in the Transcaucasus, and other enterprises were built in the city.)

Present-day Leninakan is the republic’s main center for the textile and knitwear industry (in addition to the textile combine, there are spinning, stocking, and knitwear factories). Machine building has been greatly developed (the electrotechnical industry, machine-tool industry, and instrument-making); there are plants producing miniature electric motors, grinding machines, and forging-and-pressing equipment, the Strommashina Plant, and a plant producing household refrigerators. The food industry is well developed (a meat-packing plant, confectionery plant, dairy, and brewery). Footwear, clothing, and furniture factories, enterprises producing railroad equipment, and building materials enterprises are operating. Leninakan has a pedagogical institute, a branch of the Yerevan Polytechnic Institute, technicums —of machine-tool making, light industry, construction, and railroad transport, and a sovkhoz-technicum—and schools of medicine, pedagogy, and music. There is a dramatic theater, a puppet theater, and a museum of local lore.

Architectural monuments include a sixth-century church (ruins) and the domed Astvatsatsin basilica (17th century), both made of tuff. The city acquired a regular layout in the middle of the 19th century. In the Soviet era a system of squares joined by broad avenues has been built in the central part of the city on the basis of the plans of 1925 (architect A. Tamanian) and 1936–39 (architects M. Mazmanian and others). A radial-annular design with new squares, streets, public gardens, and parks has been taking shape in accordance with the 1960 plan (architects G. Isabekian and others), and the reconstruction of the center is continuing (Aragatsi Street). There is a monument to V. I. Lenin (bronze and granite, 1954, sculptor S. D. Merkurov, architect M. Grigorian). [14—891–2]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(111) For example, in Leninakan in 1948, 725 families were reported to need clothes, 1,200 fuel, and 710 stoves (HAA f.
In 1988, over 25,000 people were killed and 503,000 left homeless when an earthquake hit the region surrounding the towns of Leninakan and Spitak in Armenia.
We head out to the earthquake zone early in the morning - a warm morning, almost springlike but rapidly cooling off as we drive north toward Leninakan. We're in a fine yellow van belonging to Karekin Nercissian, otherwise known as the Bishop of Yerevan.
Leninakan is about two hours' drive from Yerevan, at least it is today, with the road narrow and a soft misty rain beginning to fall.
On that December morning, Leninakan was the second largest city in Armenia, with about 290,000 people living there.
Of the nearby big cities, the quake damaged Leninakan, with a population of 290,000, far more than Kirovakan, which held about 170,000.