Lennox, Matthew Stuart, 4th earl of

Lennox, Matthew Stuart or Stewart, 4th earl of

(lĕn`əks), 1516–71, Scottish nobleman. Related to the royal family, being next in the line of succession to the throne after James HamiltonHamilton, James, 2d earl of Arran,
d. 1575, Scottish nobleman; son of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran. After the death (1542) of James V, he stood next in line to the throne after the infant Mary Queen of Scots.
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, 2d earl of Arran, Lennox returned to Scotland in 1542, after service in France, to contest Arran's claim to be regent for the infant Mary Queen of ScotsMary Queen of Scots
(Mary Stuart), 1542–87, only child of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. Through her grandmother Margaret Tudor, Mary had the strongest claim to the throne of England after the children of Henry VIII.
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. In 1544 he allied himself with Henry VIII of England, marrying Margaret Douglas, the daughter of Henry's sister Margaret TudorMargaret Tudor,
1489–1541, queen consort of James IV of Scotland; daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII. Her marriage (1503) to James was accompanied by a treaty of "perpetual peace" between Scotland and England, a peace that was ended when James
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 and Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus. He lived in England for the next 20 years and led several invasions of Scotland. Lennox and his wife, a woman of great ambition and ability, were in great favor in England until the accession (1558) of Elizabeth I, who did not trust them. They became leaders among the Catholic nobility and succeeded in marrying (1565) their son, Lord DarnleyDarnley, Henry Stuart or Stewart, Lord,
1545–67, second husband of Mary Queen of Scots and father of James I of England (James VI of Scotland).
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, to Mary Queen of Scots. After Darnley's murder (1567), Lennox formally accused the earl of BothwellBothwell, James Hepburn, 4th earl of
, 1536?–1578, Scottish nobleman; third husband of Mary Queen of Scots.
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 of the deed but failed to appear at his farcical trial. When Mary was imprisoned, Lennox again became prominent and, through Elizabeth's intervention, was chosen regent to succeed (1570) the 1st earl of Murray. Mary's party, led by the Hamiltons and William MaitlandMaitland, William
(Maitland of Lethington), 1528?–1573, Scottish statesman. In 1559 he deserted the regent Mary of Guise and joined the revolt of the Protestant nobles. When Mary Queen of Scots returned to Scotland two years later, he became her secretary and close adviser.
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, at once declared war against him. Lennox was stabbed to death in a raid during this war. His surviving son, Charles, was created earl of Lennox and was the father of Arabella StuartStuart or Stewart, Arabella,
1575–1615, cousin of James I of England (James VI of Scotland). She was the daughter of Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, younger brother of Lord Darnley, and her descent from Henry
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.
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