Leo X

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Leo X,

1475–1521, pope (1513–21), a Florentine named Giovanni de' Medici; successor of Julius IIJulius II,
1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.
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. He was the son of Lorenzo de' Medici, was made a cardinal in his boyhood, and was head of his family before he was 30 (see MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
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). Leo was not a competent ruler; he was a good, pious man, a dilettante of letters and art, but not greatly interested in the advancement of the church. His chief fame rests on his patronage of Raphael, on the continuation of St. Peter's by Bramante, and on his literary circle, including Cardinals Bembo and Bibbiena and many others. The Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
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, called with the hope that it would effect reforms, achieved little. The Protestant ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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 began when Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis

Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
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 posted (1517) his famous theses against the sale of indulgences, an activity practiced by Leo to provide income for his building program. Leo excommunicated the reformers, notably with the bull Exsurge Domine (1520), but he failed to deal effectively with the trouble. In politics he brought the papacy temporary hegemony in Italy by dexterity in diplomatic maneuvers. Leo granted Henry VIII of England the title Defender of the Faith (Defensor Fidei). He was succeeded by Adrian VIAdrian VI,
1459–1523, pope (1522–23), a Netherlander (b. Utrecht) named Adrian Florensz; successor of Leo X. He taught at Louvain and was tutor of the young prince, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
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Leo X

original name Giovanni de' Medici. 1475--1521, pope (1513--21): noted for his patronage of Renaissance art and learning; excommunicated Luther (1521)
References in periodicals archive ?
It is not clear that the painting of Leo X was intended for installation as an official portrait in the Palazzo Medici in Florence.
The argument that Raphael's portrait was painted to make possible in effigy the presence of Leo at the wedding banquet in Florence, as if blessing the union of the Medici and Valois houses and testifying to the pope's affection for, and protection of, the couple, would be consistent with the alliance Leo X had negotiated earlier with France at Bologna.
The winter clothing of the pope in the painting suggests that the portrait was begun many months earlier, when it would be doubtful that Leo X already knew that he would be unable to attend the Florentine wedding festivities in person.
Raphael's painting was originally designed and executed as a formal portrait of Leo X seated alone before a green cloth of honor.
The religious character of the original painting, however, depicting Leo X as a prophetic figure, a new John the Baptist or Angelic Pastor, had already been set.
One of the striking elements in Raphael's portrait of Leo X is the brightness of the light that falls on the pope's face and hand.
Just as Raphael had painted the portraits of Giuliano and Lorenzo, the hoped-for founders of a secular Medici dynasty, he was now commissioned by Leo X to paint the key members of an ecclesiastical Medici dynasty.
Leo X initially tried to deal with it on 3 February 1518 by asking the vicar general of the Augustinian Hermits to silence his subject.
The reign of Leo X was indeed a time of intense and widespread apocalyptic anticipation.
A likely candidate might have been Iacopo di Francesco di Zanobi Girolami, canon of the cathedral from 1506 to his death in 1555 and chamberlain to Leo X.
On 4 November 1515, Leo X officially assigned Alfonsina Orsini the planning of his ingresso.
Another portrait of Leo X by Monte di Giovanni was executed on a large wax candle, which was donated to the pope on the occasion of the feast of the Purification of the Virgin --known as the candelaja -- on 2 February.