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Related to Leo X: Alexander VI, Charles V, Clement VII, Martin Luther, Julius II, John Calvin, Johann Tetzel
Leo X,1475–1521, pope (1513–21), a Florentine named Giovanni de' Medici; successor of Julius IIJulius II,
1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.
..... Click the link for more information. . He was the son of Lorenzo de' Medici, was made a cardinal in his boyhood, and was head of his family before he was 30 (see MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
..... Click the link for more information. ). Leo was not a competent ruler; he was a good, pious man, a dilettante of letters and art, but not greatly interested in the advancement of the church. His chief fame rests on his patronage of Raphael, on the continuation of St. Peter's by Bramante, and on his literary circle, including Cardinals Bembo and Bibbiena and many others. The Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
..... Click the link for more information. , called with the hope that it would effect reforms, achieved little. The Protestant ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
..... Click the link for more information. began when Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis
Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. posted (1517) his famous theses against the sale of indulgences, an activity practiced by Leo to provide income for his building program. Leo excommunicated the reformers, notably with the bull Exsurge Domine (1520), but he failed to deal effectively with the trouble. In politics he brought the papacy temporary hegemony in Italy by dexterity in diplomatic maneuvers. Leo granted Henry VIII of England the title Defender of the Faith (Defensor Fidei). He was succeeded by Adrian VIAdrian VI,
1459–1523, pope (1522–23), a Netherlander (b. Utrecht) named Adrian Florensz; successor of Leo X. He taught at Louvain and was tutor of the young prince, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
..... Click the link for more information. .
original name Giovanni de' Medici. 1475--1521, pope (1513--21): noted for his patronage of Renaissance art and learning; excommunicated Luther (1521)