Leo X

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Leo X,

1475–1521, pope (1513–21), a Florentine named Giovanni de' Medici; successor of Julius IIJulius II,
1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.
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. He was the son of Lorenzo de' Medici, was made a cardinal in his boyhood, and was head of his family before he was 30 (see MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
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). Leo was not a competent ruler; he was a good, pious man, a dilettante of letters and art, but not greatly interested in the advancement of the church. His chief fame rests on his patronage of Raphael, on the continuation of St. Peter's by Bramante, and on his literary circle, including Cardinals Bembo and Bibbiena and many others. The Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
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, called with the hope that it would effect reforms, achieved little. The Protestant ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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 began when Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis

Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
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 posted (1517) his famous theses against the sale of indulgences, an activity practiced by Leo to provide income for his building program. Leo excommunicated the reformers, notably with the bull Exsurge Domine (1520), but he failed to deal effectively with the trouble. In politics he brought the papacy temporary hegemony in Italy by dexterity in diplomatic maneuvers. Leo granted Henry VIII of England the title Defender of the Faith (Defensor Fidei). He was succeeded by Adrian VIAdrian VI,
1459–1523, pope (1522–23), a Netherlander (b. Utrecht) named Adrian Florensz; successor of Leo X. He taught at Louvain and was tutor of the young prince, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
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Leo X

original name Giovanni de' Medici. 1475--1521, pope (1513--21): noted for his patronage of Renaissance art and learning; excommunicated Luther (1521)
References in periodicals archive ?
(32) Luigi, slightly older than his cousin, was a particular favorite of Leo X since they had been educated together and had shared the same misfortunes.
1460/61-1521), prior to his loss of the office of vice-chancellor due to his complicity in the conspiracy to poison Leo X. (43) Giulio took his responsibilities as archbishop of Florence seriously by ordering a provincial council to be held there in 1516-17 in order to implement the reform decrees of the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17).
(47) Barely visible in the shadows to the left is the six-palle coat of arms of Leo X, which is surmounted by the crossed papal keys and tiara.
(52) According to Alberto Pio, imperial ambassador at the court of Leo X and his relative by marriage, such bells destroy malignant forces in the air.
Leo X was noted for his nearsightedness and owned various optical glasses that have been studied by scholars.
At some later date it came into the possession of Leo X. In Raphael's painting, the parchment manuscript is opened to folios 400v-401r.
* Leonardo di Piero di Niccolaio Dan (canon 1498-1527): vicar general of Florence; chamberlain of Leo X;
* Guido di Antonio di Giuliano de' Medici (canon 1506-32): familiar and secret chamberlain of Leo X;
* Andrea Puerari di Cremona (canon 1509- ?): chamberlain of Leo X;
* Aldieri [=Alterio] di Carlo Aldighieri Biliotti Tornabelli (canon 1509-28): apostolic prorhonotary of cardinal Giovanni de' Medici; familiar, domestic prelate, and majordomo of Leo X; (18)
* Giuliano di Guglielmo di Antonio de' Pazzi (canon 1510-17): cousin of Leo X.
As familiars, commensales, chamberlains, domestic prelates, majordomi, prothonotaries, squires, and ambassadors of Giovanni de' Medici (either as cardinal or Pope Leo X), (19) these canons enjoyed considerable authority: not only did they have direct access to the man they served, but they were also in a position of power within the hierarchy of the Florentine ecciesia maior.