Leon Duguit

Duguit, Leon

 

Born Feb. 4, 1859, in Libourne, Gironde; died Dec. 18, 1928, in Bordeaux. French scholar and legal and political theorist; professor of law at the University of Bordeaux (1886).

At the beginning of his scholarly career Duguit adhered to the organic school, later becoming one of the founders of so-called solidarism, which asserted that the essence, functions, and goals of bourgeois law and the bourgeois state are based on the principle of solidarity of all members of society. Duguit’s concept of solidarism opposed the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of class struggle, but it was also directed against the bourgeois individualistic ideas of the period of industrial capitalism. Duguit advanced the thesis of the “socialization” of the basic institutes of bourgeois law, above all of property. According to Duguit, capitalist private property has a “social function” and serves society as a whole. On the basis of this conception, Duguit worked out a number of legal and practical recommendations that contributed to the development of monopoly capital and state-monopoly trends. Duguit was opposed to the bourgeois state’s noninterference in economic life and, echoing Keynesianism, spoke of the transformation of the bourgeois state into an “organization of public services.” As an important means of implementing the principle of solidarism, Duguit advanced the idea of syndicalism, that is, professional-corporative representation of all strata of society in government. Although Duguit himself was an adherent of bourgeois democracy, many of his tenets, such as corporatism and the denial of legal rights, became an inherent part of the ideology of Italian and German fascism. This largely explains the decline in popularity of Duguit’s theories after World War II (1939-45), although in general Duguit had a certain influence on the development of bourgeois political and legal thought.

WORKS

Des Fonctions de l’état moderne. Paris, 1894.
L’Etat, le droit objectif et la loi positive. Paris, 1901.
Le Droit social, le droit individuel et la transformation de l’état. Paris, 1908. In Russian translation: Sotsial’noe pravo, individual’noe pravo i preobrazovanie gosudarstva. Moscow, 1909.
Obshchie preobrazovaniia grazhdanskogo prava so vremeni kodeksa Napoleona. Moscow, 1919. (Translated from French.)
Traite de droit constitutionnel, 2nd ed., vols. 1-5. Paris, 1921-25. Third edition, vol. 1: Paris, 1927.

V. A. TUMANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
En los albores del siglo XX, Leon Duguit, profesor decano de la Universidad de Burdeos, elaboro su Teoria General del Acto Juridico, para explicar porque esta manifestacion de la voluntad juridica produce consecuencias de derecho, expuso con detalle los distintos momentos psicologicos constitutivos del acto de voluntad.
Leon Duguit, uno de los grandes juristas del derecho publico frances, Decano de la Facultad de Derecho de Burdeos a inicios del siglo XX, contribuyo en mi decision de estudiar sociologia general; decia Duguit:
Emphasizing the interdependence Leon Duguit said: "Law without force is powerless, but power without law is a barbarity." (Duguit apud Ceterchi, l996: 117)
Como lo afirmaba el jurista frances Leon Duguit, "si el rol del profesor de derecho debiera limitarse a comentar las leyes positivas, no valdria un minuto de esfuerzo y de trabajo.
Por su parte, las comitivas francesas contaron con representantes tan notables como Georges Clemenceau, Jean Jaures, Leon Duguit, Le Corbusier y Jacques Maritain.
Quizas sea una obra juridica, la de Leon Duguit, la que mejor metaboliza el afluente politico y el afluente sociologico del concepto de solidaridad--no caben dudas, en cambio, de que ella ilustra toda la complejidad de la recepcion del pensamiento social dentro de la doctrina del Derecho publico (y no solo frances)--.
En la decada de los treinta, el servicio publico se encuentra en el centro de una construccion doctrinal juridica sistematica del Estado; su organizacion tuvo como precursores a Leon Duguit (1859-1928) (1b) y a un grupo de juristas que conformaban la ecole de Bordeaux o del service publique (2), cuya recepcion en Colombia fue de cierto impacto en la politica estatal interna (Rivero, 2002; Quintero, 1997).
In so doing, in his 1939 classic, The Twenty Years' Crisis, he mentioned the well-known name of Leon Duguit, who in his 1927 Traite de droit constitutionnel had called the state-as-person fiction a 'valueless and meaningless anthropomorphism'.
Para ello cita a tres destacados juristas: Jacinto Pallares, quien influyo en varias generaciones de abogados mexicanos a comienzos del siglo XX; al jalisciense Mariano Coronado, y al frances Leon Duguit.
As Leon Duguit, arguably France's most influential public law scholar through the early decades of the twentieth century, wrote in 1917:
Dicho paradigma fue demolido durante la primera decada del siguiente siglo a raiz de los novedosos y vigorosos planteamientos formulados por el jurista frances Leon Duguit, quien atribuyo a la propiedad una funcion eminentemente social, significando con ello que, ademas de atender sus propias necesidades, el propietario esta obligado a usar sus bienes teniendo presente el imperativo de la satisfaccion de las necesidades de la colectividad.