In contrast to DSA, non-invasive techniques have a limited resolution in the assessment of leptomeningeal
or other secondary collaterals .
In the reported patient, leptomeningeal
thickening, cortical calcification, and atrophy in the left temporoparietooccipital region were found.
Postcontrast MRI axial T1 (A), GRE sagittal (B), GRE axial (C), and GRE coronal (D) images show diffuse leptomeningeal
enhancement, enhancing basal exudates and high biparietal epidural fluid collection (white arrow) with cerebritis.
(b) Axial T1 + gadolinium: ring- enhancing lesions and absent leptomeningeal
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine showed scattered areas of restricted diffusion throughout the brain parenchyma, leptomeningeal
enhancement, and multifocal nodular enhancement along the ventral portion of multiple spinal levels.
The third cohort--a small group of 15 patients who received nivolumab alone--either had symptomatic brain metastases or leptomeningeal
disease and could have had previous brain surgery or radiotherapy.
(9) Ophthalmoplegia with normal MRI may occur via paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis and leptomeningeal
metastasis (lymphomatous meningitis).
A lumbar puncture performed revealed normal CSF cell count, protein 227 mg/dL, and glucose 24 mg/dL; cytopathology was positive for atypical mononuclear cells confirming leptomeningeal
Figure 2B details subtle leptomeningeal
enhancement overlying the right frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes without intra- axial enhancement.
The antibody aimed at refractory leptomeningeal
tumour neuroblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, is a potential breakthrough treatment for paediatric patients.
Eve's grandson, Dominic Halliwell, of Low Fell in Gateshead, was just over two months old when he was diagnosed with disseminated leptomeningeal
glioneuronal tumour, an incredibly rare form of cancer.
Sometimes grayish black pigmentation is seen because of the colonization of the hyperplastic leptomeningeal