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C7H15NO3α-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid trimethylbetaine; a constituent of striated muscle and liver, identical with vitamin B T.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



betaine-γ-amino-β-oxybutyric acid, (CH3)3NCH2CH(OH)CH2CO2, a crystalline compound with basic properties; dissolves readily in water and alcohol. Its molecular mass is 161.21, and its melting point, 195°-197°C (with decomposition).

Carnitine is primarily found in animal muscle, from which it was first extracted by V. S. Gulevich (1905); it is also found in bacteria and plants. It takes part in fatty exchange within an organism by acting as a carrier of fatty acid radicals through the membranes of the mitochondria. These membranes are impermeable to activated fatty acids (compounds with coenzyme A). With the aid of carnitine, therefore, fatty acids enter the scope of activity of the oxidizing enzymes localized within the mitochondria. Carnitine apparently also participates in the reverse transport of fatty acids. It is an essential dietary constituent and a growth factor in certain insects; therefore it is considered to be a vitamin (vitamin BT).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sensitive determination of d-carnitine as enantiomeric impurity of levocarnitine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.
Tang, "Influence of levocarnitine on heart function and endocrine among patients with heart failure," Chinese Journal of Epidemiology, vol.
Levocarnitine is an amino acid derivative that plays a key role in fatty acid metabolism and energy production.
Other responses included: administering midodrine, assessing antihypertensive therapy, increasing length of treatment, and administering levocarnitine. A majority of clinics (61%) utilize medication to proactively manage IDH episodes (see Figure 2).
After the diagnosis of cblC disease was made, antipsychotic drugs were discontinued and the patients were treated with levocarnitine (intravenous injection, 1 g/d), MeCbl (intramuscular injection, 1 mg/d), folic acid (oral, 5 mg/d), and Vitamin B6 (oral, 30 mg/d).
Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
A meta-analysis of six randomized, placebocontrolled trials with 167 hemodialysis patients that evaluated the effect of levocarnitine on cramps found a pooled odds ratio of 0.3 (0.009-1.00, p=0.05), suggesting, although not statistically significant, that carnitine may improve cramps.
Levocarnitine is a naturally occurring substance that functions in the transport of long-chain fatty acids cross mitochondrial membranes, resulting in the production of ATP, which the body uses as a source of energy.
One of them is an FDA-approved levocarnitine injection drug for the prevention and treatment of carnitine deficiency in chronic uremia patients affected by end stage renal disease.
The drink contains a substance called levocarnitine (l-carnitine) which is converted in the body to an amino acid called carnitine, which is vital for energy to the muscles.
Carnitor[R] (levocarnitine) is an example of an orphan drug with marketing exclusivity as a drug, but which is nonetheless forced to compete with dietary supplements; Coenzyme Q10 is an example of a dietary supplement that holds great promise for certain types of disorders but is hampered by the many obstacles to development as a drug.
Debate forum: levocarnitine therapy is rational and justified in selected dialysis patients.