To complicate matters further, history teachers are socialized into a profession that largely sees its task as covering content, because history standards span vast geographies and time periods (Barton & Levstik
, 2004; Schall-Leckrone & McQuillan, 2012).
This proposal fits into the context of an ever greater interest, in the USA and Canada, in the definition of knowledge about history (Barton & Levstik
, 2004; Stearns, Seixas & Wineburg, 2000; Van Sledright, 2011; Wineburg, 2001).
Lingard L, McDougall A, Levstik
M, Chandok N, Spafford MM, Schryer C.
This is not different within the context of history education (Barton & Levstik
(2010), in her review of research in social studies classrooms, reports that her early work addressed integration of literacy and math with social studies and concluded that each subject has aspects that need separate classroom attention.
(1996) further suggests a shift should be made ".
Nonetheless, many teachers are so fixated on "control and cover" instruction that the prospect of open discussion of sociopolitical controversies in their classes can be an intimidating prospect (Barton & Levstik
During the last three years, students should read Fran Levstik
, Josip Jurcic, Prezihov Voranc, Tone Pavcek, Homer, two contemporary authors according to the teacher's choice (in both the seventh and the eighth grade), Anton Tomaz Linhart, Valentin Vodnik, France Preseren, Janko Kersnik, Ivan Tavcar, Anton Askerc, Janez Menart, Niko Grafenauer, Lev Tolstoj, Primoz Trubar, Simon Gregorcic, Ivan Cankar, Oton Zupancic, Josip Murn, Dragotin Kette, Srecko Kosovel, Ciril Kosmac, William Shakespeare, and three current-day authors (see Poznanovic Jezersek, Cestnik, Cuden, Gomivnik Thuma, Honzak, Krizaj Ortar, Rosc Leskovec, Zveglic 68-69).
writes about how raising a special-needs son shaped her family and professional life.
, 2004; Ladson-Billings, 2009; Pang & Gibson, 2001).
Instead of urging students to read history, Levstik
and Barton invite them to do history--as participants.
Pinto argues that students should learn to relate evidence in sites and buildings to their own ideas, perspectives, and questions (Barton and Levstik
2004, 121) to "connect what they see, do and feel with what they already know, understand and acknowledge" (Barton and Levstik
2004, 153), in constructivist ways, enriching their appreciation of the cultural, social and economic contributions of diverse groups to the communities.