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small apeape,
any primate of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbons and the siamang, and the orangutans, which belong to the great apes, are found in SE Asia.
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, family Hylobatidae, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life. They are highly endangered because of habitat destruction.

Most gibbons are about 3 ft (90 cm) tall and weigh about 15 lb (6.4 kg). Their arms are extremely long in proportion to their body length, and they swing through the trees with great speed and agility, clearing gaps up to 20 ft (6 m) wide. On the ground they walk on two feet, holding their arms up awkwardly; they can also run on all fours.

Members of most gibbon species have black faces surrounded by a white ruff; their fur ranges in color from black to buff. Some species, e.g., the lar, or white-handed, gibbon, have sexual dimorphism in coloration. Like Old World monkeys and unlike other apes, gibbons have callosities on their buttocks.

Gibbons live in permanent families consisting of a male, a female, and their young; families occupy definite territories. They feed on fruits and other plant matter as well as insects and other small animals. Gibbons have powerful voices and at times engage in loud howling, which is answered by other gibbons in the vicinity.

The largest gibbon is the siamang, Symphalangus syndactylus. Deep black, with a reddish brown face, the siamang may weigh up to 25 lb (11.3 kg). Siamangs are further distinguished by the presence in both sexes of a large vocal sac on the throat; this sac is inflated before the animal howls and probably functions to magnify the sound. Such a sac is also found in the male black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor). Siamangs are found in the high mountain forests of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula.

Gibbons are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, family Hylobatidae.

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(vertebrate zoology)
The common name for seven species of large, tailless primates belonging to the genus Hylobates ; the face and ears are hairless, and the arms are longer than the legs.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


any small agile arboreal anthropoid ape of the genus Hylobates, inhabiting forests in S Asia


1. Edward. 1737--94, English historian; author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776--88), controversial in its historical criticism of Christianity
2. Lewis Grassic , real name James Leslie Mitchell. 1901--35, Scottish writer: best known for his trilogy of novels Scots Quair (1932--34)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(3) This testimonial has subsequently been reaffirmed by republication of long out of print works by Mitchell, principally by Canongate in their Scottish Classics imprint and by Polygon in their 'Lewis Grassic Gibbon Series', by the adoption of Sunset Song as a specified text by the Open University in 2005, and by the rural novel's induction to the Penguin Classics stable in 2007, which served to introduce the book to a conventional English readership that had been slow to acknowledge Gibbon's literary status within contemporary canonical groupings of the novel.
During his time out of the spotlight, his "fallow period" as he dubs it, he was busy working on projects including an adaptation of Sunset Song by Lewis Grassic Gibbon, a script on American poet Emily Dickinson, and an adaptation of Ed McBain's novel He Who Hesitates, while he's just about to start a first draft of a "wonderful contemporary novel" by Richard McCann called Mother of Sorrows.
Sunset Song, 15, PS19.99 Model turned actress Agyness Deyn shines in this version of Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Scots classic, which also stars Peter Mullan.
Fortunately his fellow actor, who appeared in Sunshine on Leith and stars in the upcoming film adaptation of Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song, didn't give him the cold shoulder.
(2013) 'Editing a Twentieth-Century Novelist: Getting Lewis Grassic Gibbon (Back) Into Print', Studies in Scottish Literature 39 (1), pp.
The world should read Lewis Grassic Gibbon's novel Sunset Song, a lament for the world lost in the Great War seen through the eyes of Chris Guthrie, one of literature's most powerful female characters.
In the work of the most formally resourceful writers of the Renaissance--MacDiarmid himself, Lewis Grassic Gibbon, Sorley MacLean --the impetus towards cultural re-animation took on a specifically Scottish linguistic character that led inexorably away from the 'global' lingua franca of Joyce, Eliot and Pound.
He starred in the successful big–screen version of The Proclaimers musical Sunshine On Leith and he is now shooting the hotly anticipated film of Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song, with model and actress Agyness Deyn.
They came to audition to be extras in the film of the classic Scots novel, 'Sunset Song' by the North-east's best-loved writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon.
Finn was also part of the company's highly-acclaimed adaptation of Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song and sees some similarities between the two works.