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small apeape,
any primate of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbons and the siamang, and the orangutans, which belong to the great apes, are found in SE Asia.
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, family Hylobatidae, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life. They are highly endangered because of habitat destruction.

Most gibbons are about 3 ft (90 cm) tall and weigh about 15 lb (6.4 kg). Their arms are extremely long in proportion to their body length, and they swing through the trees with great speed and agility, clearing gaps up to 20 ft (6 m) wide. On the ground they walk on two feet, holding their arms up awkwardly; they can also run on all fours.

Members of most gibbon species have black faces surrounded by a white ruff; their fur ranges in color from black to buff. Some species, e.g., the lar, or white-handed, gibbon, have sexual dimorphism in coloration. Like Old World monkeys and unlike other apes, gibbons have callosities on their buttocks.

Gibbons live in permanent families consisting of a male, a female, and their young; families occupy definite territories. They feed on fruits and other plant matter as well as insects and other small animals. Gibbons have powerful voices and at times engage in loud howling, which is answered by other gibbons in the vicinity.

The largest gibbon is the siamang, Symphalangus syndactylus. Deep black, with a reddish brown face, the siamang may weigh up to 25 lb (11.3 kg). Siamangs are further distinguished by the presence in both sexes of a large vocal sac on the throat; this sac is inflated before the animal howls and probably functions to magnify the sound. Such a sac is also found in the male black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor). Siamangs are found in the high mountain forests of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula.

Gibbons are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates, family Hylobatidae.


(vertebrate zoology)
The common name for seven species of large, tailless primates belonging to the genus Hylobates ; the face and ears are hairless, and the arms are longer than the legs.


any small agile arboreal anthropoid ape of the genus Hylobates, inhabiting forests in S Asia


1. Edward. 1737--94, English historian; author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776--88), controversial in its historical criticism of Christianity
2. Lewis Grassic , real name James Leslie Mitchell. 1901--35, Scottish writer: best known for his trilogy of novels Scots Quair (1932--34)
References in periodicals archive ?
The first, Scottish, repeat, was prefaced by Places of the Sunset: The Hand of Lewis Grassic Gibbon, a documentary written and produced by James Wilson, including contributions from Mrs Ray Mitchell, Ian S Munro and Christopher Murray Grieve ('Hugh MacDiarmid'), transmitted on BBC Scotland on 10 September 1971.
4) Lyall, Scott, editor, The International Companion to Lewis Grassic Gibbon (Glasgow: Scottish Literature International, 2015).
5) Lewis Grassic Gibbon, Grey Granite (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1990, p.
The essay is reprinted in the comprehensive miscellany Smeddum: A Lewis Grassic Gibbon Anthology, edited by Valentine Bold (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 2001), pp.
Adaptation of the Lewis Grassic Gibbon novel kicks off the town's youth arts festival.
And Burns, Sir Walter Scott, Hugh MacDiarmid, Lewis Grassic Gibbon, James Kelman, Jeff Torrington and Irvine Welsh would all be in anybody's top 10.
Always very Earl Haig and I never know if he's telling the truth or Lewis Grassic Gibbon.
1992) - Jeff Torrington Sunset Song (1932) - Lewis Grassic Gibbon The Thirty-Nine Steps (1922) - John Buchan To the Lighthouse (1927) - Virginia Woolf Trainspotting (1993) - Irvine Welsh The Trick is to Keep Breathing (1989) - Janice Galloway Trumpet (1998) - Jackie Kay A Twelvemonth and a Day (1985) - Christopher Rush Tunes of Glory (1956) - James Kennaway Under the Skin (2000) - Michel Faber A Voyage to Arcturus (1920) - David Lindsay The Wasp Factory (1984) - Iain Banks The Wealth of Nations (1776) - Adam Smith Whisky Galore (1947) - Compton Mackenzie The White Bird Passes (1958) - Jessie Kesson The Wind in the Willows (1908) - Kenneth Grahame Young Adam (1954) - Alexander Trocchi
Another wanted to know why there weren't any monkeys at the Lewis Grassic Gibbon Centre - they obviously hadn't heard of the Scots writer who'd given the venue its name.
Why aren't there any monkeys at the Lewis Grassic Gibbon Centre?
Estate agent Malcolm Burns said: "The fact that Lewis Grassic Gibbon was born in it is definitely a selling point.