Lianas


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lianas

 

plants that are incapable of maintaining vertical stems and therefore use other plants and various objects, including rocks and structures, for support. Lianas are primarily flowering plants but also include several species of Pterodophyta and Gymnospermae (Gnetaceae). Depending on their method of attaching to their support, lianas are described as either climbing or twining plants. There are both arboreal and herbaceous forms. Lianas are usually autotrophic, rooting in the soil; some are epiphytes and even parasites that are devoid of green leaves and roots (for example, the genus Cuscuta). The stems of most lianas grow greatly in length and insignificantly in thickness; they have greatly elongated internodes. The conductive fascicles are isolated from each other by the parenchyma, which ensures flexibility and durability of the stem.

The ability to climb and twine has been developed by the plants as an evolutionary adaptation in the struggle for light. Lianas are usually confined to forest types of vegetation. More than 2,000 species are found in humid tropical forests (for example, rattan palms—climbers that reach 300 m in length). Few lianas grow in temperate zones. In the USSR they are found in the forests of Western Transcaucasia (species of Clematis, Rubus, Smilax, and Hedera) and in parts of Eastern Transcaucasia and Ussuri region (Chinese magnolia vine, Actinidia, and others). In middle latitudes, lianas are found as a rule in humid alder forests and willow stands (including hop, Calystegia, Asperula rivalis, bedstraw, and bittersweet) as well as in meadows (various species of Vicia and Lathyrus). Some lianas are weeds, including field bindweed and black bindweed. The most important cultivated varieties are grapevines, hops, and certain types of legumes (for example, peas). Lianas that are ornamentals include various species of wire plant, Phaseolus, Clematis, Aristolochia, and Passiflora. Tropical and subtropical lianas are sometimes grown indoors (true jasmine and some species of asparagus).

REFERENCES

Darwin, C. Laziashchie rasteniia: Soch. vol. 8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Richards, P. U. Tropicheskii dozhdevoi les. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from English.)

T. I. SEREBRIAKOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ao se considerar cada ambiente isoladamente, foi observado um padrao semelhante entre os mesmos, em que se evidencia maior riqueza para as arboreas, seguido pelas lianas e por ultimo herbaceas e arbustivas que apresentam niveis de riqueza semelhantes (Figura 3).
Em relacao as lianas, no RFID elas apresentaram maior abundancia, bem como maior riqueza de especies em relacao a FLT.
Maternity roost of Eptesicus brasiliensis in a liana in the Southeast Peruvian Amazon
The changes in leaf structure observed here are consistent with the expected direction of differences under sun and shade environments and are not unique to lianas (i.e., Poorter, 2001).
Dado que las lianas logran eso anclandose sobre los arboles, se considera que son parasitas estructurales de estos (Stevens, 1987) y que compiten con ellos por la luz y los recursos del suelo (Whigham, 1984; Clark y Clark, 1990), perjudicando a algunas especies arboreas mas que a otras (Wright et al., 2005).
In the tropical forest, lianas may only contribute to 5% of the total above-ground biomass while the leaves of the lianas may make up around 20% of the total forest leaf area (Putz, 1983).
Available in both saloon and estate models, the Liana - the name apparently stood for Life In A New Age - sold reasonably well in Ireland on the back of keen marketing and good prices.
Las lianas y hemiepifitas son muy importantes en la diversidad, dinamica y regeneracion de bosques tropicales.
To prevent the construction from falling forward, lianas are tied between it and the trees standing behind and to the sides of the site.
Lianas have been found to play a vital role in many aspects of forest ecosystem dynamics and functioning, including reducing tree-growth rates (Putz 1984), suppressing tree regeneration (Schnitzer et al.