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plants that are incapable of maintaining vertical stems and therefore use other plants and various objects, including rocks and structures, for support. Lianas are primarily flowering plants but also include several species of Pterodophyta and Gymnospermae (Gnetaceae). Depending on their method of attaching to their support, lianas are described as either climbing or twining plants. There are both arboreal and herbaceous forms. Lianas are usually autotrophic, rooting in the soil; some are epiphytes and even parasites that are devoid of green leaves and roots (for example, the genus Cuscuta). The stems of most lianas grow greatly in length and insignificantly in thickness; they have greatly elongated internodes. The conductive fascicles are isolated from each other by the parenchyma, which ensures flexibility and durability of the stem.

The ability to climb and twine has been developed by the plants as an evolutionary adaptation in the struggle for light. Lianas are usually confined to forest types of vegetation. More than 2,000 species are found in humid tropical forests (for example, rattan palms—climbers that reach 300 m in length). Few lianas grow in temperate zones. In the USSR they are found in the forests of Western Transcaucasia (species of Clematis, Rubus, Smilax, and Hedera) and in parts of Eastern Transcaucasia and Ussuri region (Chinese magnolia vine, Actinidia, and others). In middle latitudes, lianas are found as a rule in humid alder forests and willow stands (including hop, Calystegia, Asperula rivalis, bedstraw, and bittersweet) as well as in meadows (various species of Vicia and Lathyrus). Some lianas are weeds, including field bindweed and black bindweed. The most important cultivated varieties are grapevines, hops, and certain types of legumes (for example, peas). Lianas that are ornamentals include various species of wire plant, Phaseolus, Clematis, Aristolochia, and Passiflora. Tropical and subtropical lianas are sometimes grown indoors (true jasmine and some species of asparagus).


Darwin, C. Laziashchie rasteniia: Soch. vol. 8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Richards, P. U. Tropicheskii dozhdevoi les. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from English.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Maternity roost of Eptesicus brasiliensis in a liana in the Southeast Peruvian Amazon
The objective of this study was to describe the physical characteristics of a liana being used as an active maternity roost.
The changes in leaf structure observed here are consistent with the expected direction of differences under sun and shade environments and are not unique to lianas (i.
This expectation emerges from the evidence of Fetcher, Oberbauer and Chazdon (1994), who reported changes in leaf structure, with adult lianas doubling leaf thickness relative to seedlings grown in full shade, whereas in seedlings there was a sustained increase in leaf thickness with increasing light.
En la presente revision se propone que, asi como hay evidencias que indican que las lianas reducen el crecimiento y reproduccion de los arboles (ver Lex et al.
Son los efectos positivos y neutros de las lianas sobre los arboles tan frecuentes como los efectos negativos?
Furthermore, some studies have suggested that the selected cutting of vines before harvest, rather than widespread vine cutting, can serve the forest preservation by not reducing potential stability offered by the intertangling of lianas in hurricane prone areas (Putz, 1984, Garrido-Perez et al.
In one study, a researcher found that lianas constituted 27% of the diet for the brown howling monkey (Aouatta guariba) and 33% of the diet for the Southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) (Martins, 2009).
Las lianas y hemiepifitas son muy importantes en la diversidad, dinamica y regeneracion de bosques tropicales.
To prevent the construction from falling forward, lianas are tied between it and the trees standing behind and to the sides of the site.
The richness and abundance of lianas varied greatly with forest ecosystems and/or forest locations, depending on varying biotic and abiotic factors (DeWalt et al.