Lichfield

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Lichfield,

town (1991 pop. 25,408) and district, Staffordshire, W central England. Lichfield is a market town with light industries, famous for its three-spired cathedral and its close associations with Dr. Samuel JohnsonJohnson, Samuel,
1709–84, English author, b. Lichfield. The leading literary scholar and critic of his time, Johnson helped to shape and define the Augustan Age. He was equally celebrated for his brilliant and witty conversation.
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, who was born there in 1709. The cathedral, dating from the 13th and 14th cent., replaced the original church built by St. Chad, who founded it in the 7th cent. It suffered considerable damage at the hands of the parliamentary forces during the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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 and was not completely restored until the 19th cent. Johnson's house was turned into a museum that contains relics of his life and works, and a statue of him rests in the market square. Lichfield has a very old grammar school (founded 1497). In the 18th cent., a literary circle that included Erasmus Darwin, Thomas Day, and Anna Seward was known as the Lichfield group.

Lichfield

a city in central England, in SE Staffordshire: cathedral with three spires (13th-14th century); birthplace of Samuel Johnson, during whose lifetime the Lichfield Group (a literary circle) flourished. Pop.: 28 435 (2001)