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Liguria(lĭgo͝or`ēə, Ital. lēgo͞o`ryä), region (1991 pop. 1,676,282), 2,098 sq mi (5,434 sq km), NW Italy, extending along the Ligurian Sea and bordering France on the west. The generally mountainous region has a steep, narrow coastal strip that includes the beautiful Italian RivieraRiviera
, narrow coastal strip between the Alps and the Mediterranean, extending, roughly, from La Spezia (Italy) to Hyères (France). Famous for its scenic beauty and for its mild winter climate, and dotted with fashionable resorts, hotels, and villas, the Riviera is a
..... Click the link for more information. . In the interior, the Ligurian Alps rise in the west and the Ligurian Apennines in the east. GenoaGenoa
, Ital. Genova, city (1991 pop. 678,771), capital of Genoa prov. and of Liguria, NW Italy, on the Ligurian Sea. Beautifully situated on the Italian Riviera, it is the chief seaport of Italy and rivals Marseilles, France, as the leading Mediterranean port.
..... Click the link for more information. is the capital of Liguria, which is divided into Genoa, Imperia, La Spezia, and Savona provs. (named for their capitals, all of which are seaports). Flowers (mostly for use in making perfume), olives, wine grapes, citrus fruit, mushrooms, and cereals are grown. Chestnuts are gathered in the mountains, where there are extensive pastures, timberland, and marble, slate, quartz, and limestone quarries. Fishing is pursued along the coast. Manufactures of the region include iron and steel, ships, machinery, textiles, chemicals, processed food, and forest products. Liguria derives its name from the ancient Ligurii, who occupied the Mediterranean coast from the Rhône River to the Arno River. In the 4th cent. B.C. the Ligurii were driven from the Alpine regions by Celtic immigrants, while Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians colonized the coast. In the 2d cent. B.C. the entire region was subdued by the Romans. Throughout the Middle Ages, Genoa struggled with local feudal lords (and at times with Venice) for control of the area. By the 16th cent. it controlled virtually all of present-day Liguria, and from that time until its annexation (1815) by the kingdom of Sardinia, Liguria shared the history of Genoa. There is a university at Genoa.
a region in north Italy on the Ligurian Sea. Area, 5,413 sq km. Population, 1,882,000 (1970). It comprises the provinces of Genoa, Imperia, La Spezia, and Savona. The main city is Genoa. The Ligurian Apennines (in the north and east) and the spurs of the Maritime Alps (in the west) occupy approximately two-thirds of the region. In certain areas the mountains extend to the coast and drop sharply to the sea. The coast has many indentations, and the rest of the region consists primarily of hilly terrain. Facing the sea and protected in the north by mountains, the coastal section of Liguria has a mild even climate and is known for its climatic resorts (Rapallo, Nervi, San Remo).
Liguria is one of Italy’s most economically developed regions, with extensive foreign trade connections and large-scale industry based on imported raw materials and fuel. Liguria occupies an advantageous geographic position in relation to Mediterranean transport: Genoa is its main port and one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean Sea. Approximately 40 percent of the economically active population of the region is employed in industry, and 12 percent in agriculture. The main branches of industry are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (in Cornigliano Ligure there is a large metallurgical complex); shipbuilding; production of railroad rolling stock, hydroelectric turbines, diesel motors, boilers, and electrical equipment; oil refining; chemical and cement industries; manufacture of industrial fabrics; and food, woodworking, and leather industries. Steam power plants produce the bulk of the electric power (10.7 billion kilowatt-hours in 1970). Industrial enterprises are concentrated principally near Genoa and west of it. In addition to Genoa, Savona and La Spezia (in the east) are important ports. Commercial agriculture, mostly capitalist, is found in the piedmont and along the coast; it consists of viticulture, fruit-growing, and the raising of olives, early vegetables, and flowers. In the mountain zone pasture livestock raising and small-scale farming (small land-holdings) are practiced.
REFERENCESRodgers, A. L. The Industrial Geography of the Port of Genova. Chicago, 1960.
Merlo, C. Liguria. [Turin, 1961.]
T. A. GALKINA