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an urban-type settlement, the administrative center of Liman Raion, Astrakhan Oblast, RSFSR, 25 km southeast of the Zenzeli railroad station (on the Astrakhan-Kizliar line) and 110 km southwest of Astrakhan. There is a creamery in Liman. Petroleum and gas are extracted in the region.
an urban-type settlement in Zmiev Raion, Kharkov Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, 15 km southeast of Zmiev and 6 km from the Zanki railroad station (on the Kharkov-Krasnyi Liman line). Some residents of Liman work in the Zmiev State Regional Electric Power Plant.
(1) An elongated bay with winding, low coasts. Limans form when the sea floods plains river valleys and ravines as a result of the relative submergence of coastal land areas. There are limans that open toward the sea (gulfs) and closed limans, which are separated from the sea by a spit or bar, either completely or partly (if there is a narrow strait). Fine-grained sands, silts, clays, and, frequently, organic substances that give rise to deposits of combustible shale, coal, and oil are usually deposited in limans. When the inflow of fresh water from the mainland is small and the climate is arid, considerable salinity results and salts are precipitated or saliferous, silty deposits (muds, frequently used as therapeutic agents) accumulate in the limans. Under conditions of a hot climate aluminum and ferric oxides, forming deposits of bauxites, may accumulate.
(2) A local designation for shallow depressions of spherical or irregular form in the arid, southeastern regions of the European part of the USSR. In the spring limans usually become filled with meltwater and are transformed into temporary bodies of water that dry up in the summer. They are generally used as meadow-lands.
REFERENCESSokolov, N. “O proiskhozhdenii limanov Iuzhnoi Rossii.” Trudy Geologicheskogo komiteta, 1895, vol. 10, no. 4.
Zenkovich, V. P. Osnovy ucheniia o razvitii morskikh beregov. Moscow, 1962.
N. I. MAKKAVEEV [14—1319–1]