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(hang`jō`) or


(hăng`chou), city (1994 est. pop. 1,184,300), capital of Zhejiang prov., E China. It is on the Fuchun River at the head of Hangzhou Bay and handles river traffic through its port. It is also a rail hub with important links to Shanghai. Long a famous silk-producing center, Hangzhou has recently been developed into a major industrial complex. Manufactures include silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel products, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, cement, rubber, paper and bamboo products, chemicals, machine tools, electronic equipment, and processed tea. Hangzhou's charming natural setting on the shore of scenic Xihu (West Lake) amid high, wooded hills attracts many tourists. Many Chinese officials have vacation homes on the lake.

Hangzhou was founded A.D. 606 and was from 907 to 960 the capital of a powerful kingdom. Many of the city's picturesque monasteries and shrines date from this period. It was the capital of the Southern Sung dynasty from 1132 to 1276, when it was sacked by Kublai Khan. In the Southern Sung period Hangzhou, rich with a thriving silk trade, was a center of art, literature, and scholarship and a cosmopolitan city with a large colony of foreign merchants—Arabs, Persians, and Nestorian Christians. Marco PoloPolo, Marco
, 1254?–1324?, Venetian traveler in China. His father, Niccolò Polo, and his uncle, Maffeo Polo, had made (1253–60) a trading expedition to Constantinople.
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, who visited it then, described it as the finest and noblest city in the world. It was famous for its splendid buildings before its near destruction (1861) during the Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion,
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed and messianic religious ideology influenced by elements of Protestant Christianity.
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; it was subsequently rebuilt along mainly modern lines.

The city's modern prosperity dates from the opening of the Shanghai-Hangzhou-Ningbo RR in 1909. It was occupied by the Japanese from 1937 to 1945, and it fell to the Communists in 1949. Hangzhou is the seat of Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou Univ., an agricultural institute, a medical college, and an institute of fine arts. Also in the city are Lingyin Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple founded in A.D. 326; botanical gardens; an art museum; and an astronomical observatory.

Hangzhou Bay is an arm of the East China Sea and begins at the mouth of the Fuchun River. When the tide is coming in, the funnel shape of the bay creates a spectacular bore, which can reach 25 ft (8 m) in height amd sweeps past Hangzhou, menacing shipping. The 22.4 mi (36 km) Hangzhou Bay Bridge crosses the bay between Zhapu (N) and Cixi (S). Zhoushan Archipelago lies across the southern entrance of the bay.


, Hangchow
a port in E China, capital of Zhejiang province, on Hangzhou Bay (an inlet of the East China Sea), at the foot of the Eye of Heaven Mountains: regarded by Marco Polo as the finest city in the world; seat of two universities (1927, 1959). Pop.: 1 955 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Krueger, 1993; Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger, Reilly y Carsrud, 2000; Soutaris, Zerbinati y Al-Laham, 2007; Linan y Chen, 2009; Vazquez et al.
Linan and Chen (2009) asked respondents if they thought that three reference groups (close family, friends, and colleagues) would approve their decision to create a firm.
In terms of attraction and intention, Linan (2004) speaks to specific issues as it relates to the desire to be an entrepreneur among other options.
La licenciada Mercedes Rangel Linan, agradecio a cada una de sus 340 voluntarias, organizadas en 35 grupos, ubicadas en hospitales y modulos del ISEM, quienes -dijo- siempre estan dispuestas para brindar ayuda y apoyo a quienes menos tienen.
Bravo Linan descubre que GC "cultivo practicamente todos los estilos [poeticos] presentes en el Siglo Ilustrado" (330) y, por eso, no debe ser "preterido en el estudio y gozo de la poesia" del siglo (347).
The highest ozone readings in the study occurred in Linan, which sits in the Yangtze River Delta, one of China's most important agricultural regions.
Bill, a former commodore of Nairn Sailing Club, bought the pounds 5000 Linan a few months ago.
Linan pulled her own son out of Langdon two years ago to send him to a public magnet school for gifted students.
Saroeun said her son told her that those who beat Linan to death were inmates in the same cell.
Zhu Linan, President of Legend Holdings, stated, "The Chinese and global economies advanced in the midst of trials and errors in 2015 while Legend holdings flexibly faced a series of uncertainties.
La conclusion en ambos ensayos es que Avellaneda no es otro que Pedro Linan de Riaza.
The assessment of entrepreneurial intention was based on Linan and Chen (2009) and Lans, Gulikers, and Batterink (2010).