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(hang`jō`) or


(hăng`chou), city (1994 est. pop. 1,184,300), capital of Zhejiang prov., E China. It is on the Fuchun River at the head of Hangzhou Bay and handles river traffic through its port. It is also a rail hub with important links to Shanghai. Long a famous silk-producing center, Hangzhou has recently been developed into a major industrial complex. Manufactures include silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel products, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, cement, rubber, paper and bamboo products, chemicals, machine tools, electronic equipment, and processed tea. Hangzhou's charming natural setting on the shore of scenic Xihu (West Lake) amid high, wooded hills attracts many tourists. Many Chinese officials have vacation homes on the lake.

Hangzhou was founded A.D. 606 and was from 907 to 960 the capital of a powerful kingdom. Many of the city's picturesque monasteries and shrines date from this period. It was the capital of the Southern Sung dynasty from 1132 to 1276, when it was sacked by Kublai Khan. In the Southern Sung period Hangzhou, rich with a thriving silk trade, was a center of art, literature, and scholarship and a cosmopolitan city with a large colony of foreign merchants—Arabs, Persians, and Nestorian Christians. Marco PoloPolo, Marco
, 1254?–1324?, Venetian traveler in China. His father, Niccolò Polo, and his uncle, Maffeo Polo, had made (1253–60) a trading expedition to Constantinople.
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, who visited it then, described it as the finest and noblest city in the world. It was famous for its splendid buildings before its near destruction (1861) during the Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion,
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed and messianic religious ideology influenced by elements of Protestant Christianity.
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; it was subsequently rebuilt along mainly modern lines.

The city's modern prosperity dates from the opening of the Shanghai-Hangzhou-Ningbo RR in 1909. It was occupied by the Japanese from 1937 to 1945, and it fell to the Communists in 1949. Hangzhou is the seat of Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou Univ., an agricultural institute, a medical college, and an institute of fine arts. Also in the city are Lingyin Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple founded in A.D. 326; botanical gardens; an art museum; and an astronomical observatory.

Hangzhou Bay is an arm of the East China Sea and begins at the mouth of the Fuchun River. When the tide is coming in, the funnel shape of the bay creates a spectacular bore, which can reach 25 ft (8 m) in height amd sweeps past Hangzhou, menacing shipping. The 22.4 mi (36 km) Hangzhou Bay Bridge crosses the bay between Zhapu (N) and Cixi (S). Zhoushan Archipelago lies across the southern entrance of the bay.


, Hangchow
a port in E China, capital of Zhejiang province, on Hangzhou Bay (an inlet of the East China Sea), at the foot of the Eye of Heaven Mountains: regarded by Marco Polo as the finest city in the world; seat of two universities (1927, 1959). Pop.: 1 955 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Owner Sabrina Dong is thinking of upgrading the company's factory, one of more than 200 in Linan City in eastern Zhejiang province making coaxial and networking cable.
That not only causes the women certain physical or mental problems, but it also gives the country a huge economic burden of more than 3 billion yuan," or about 470 million dollars, Linan said.
He might also have added ballroom to that list (with a 2pm Tea Dance and an evening social dance at the Town Hall on May 5) as well as fl amenco, with contemporary Spanish stars Olga Pericet, Manuel Linan and Marco Flores following up last year's successful Emocion Flamenco Festival at the Town Hall.
See flamenco at its most exciting with the trio of Olga Pericet, Manuel Linan and Marco Flores in En Sus 13 at the Town Hall on May 6.
Linan Nogueras, Instituciones y Derecho de la Union Europea, Editorial Tecnos, Madrid, 2006, p.
Finalmente, me gustaria agradecer con gran aprecio y afecto a todos los participantes y companeros de trabajo/equipo (Alejandro Padilla, Mario Nava, Samuel Fuenmayor, Carmen Linan, Brenda Fuenmayor, Norwin, Javier Matusalen, Fawilly Peralta, Gian Renato Lorizio, Edwin Mosco, Jose Alfredo Zambrano, Ricardo Silva, Nathali Ospino y Jose Leonardo Castaneda), que de una u de otra manera contribuyeron, con sus esfuerzos en el campo, a una exitosa culminacion de esta investigacion.
Cheng Linan, former director of the International Peace, Maternity, and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute and now a professor and researcher there, got the idea for the HomoHeart Sexual Minorities Hotline while observing interactions between local governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Australia.
Born in Toledo in 1880, Romualdo Tirado Pozo met and married Matilde Linan in South America; and after several years spent in Cuba, the young couple immigrated to Mexico in 1909.
Our definition of democracy includes the four elements delineated by Scott Mainwaring, Daniel Brinks, and Anibal Perez Linan, "Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999," Studies in Comparative International Development 36, no.
Professor Fort would like to thank Linan Yan for his assistance in learning Chinese law and Dan Wendt for his assistance in differentiating between various elements of trust.
Pauline Linan was now joined by her sister, Senorita's Linan, on frequent tours around Sarawak and recorded broadcasts.
The next three dams won on the Flat; his third dam Linan Belle was second in the Irish Cesarewitch.