Linear Dependence

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linear dependence

[′lin·ē·ər di′pen·dəns]
The property of a set of vectorsv, …,vn in a vector space for which there exists a linear combination such that a1v1+ ··· + an vn = 0, and at least one of the scalars ai is not zero.

Linear Dependence


(mathematics), a relationship of the form

(*) C1u1 + C2u2 + ... + Cnun = 0

where C1, C2,..., Cn are numbers, at least one of which is not zero, and u1, u2,..., un are various mathematical objects for which the operations of addition and multiplication by a number are defined. The dependence relation (*) is said to be linear in the objects u1, u2,..., un, since each of them enters (*) linearly, that is, the degree of each ui in (*) is one. The equality sign in the above relation may have various meanings and its sense must be specified in each particular case.

The concept of linear dependence is used in many branches of mathematics. We may thus speak, for example, of linear dependence between vectors, between functions of one or several variables, and between elements of a vector space. If the objects u1, u2,..., un are connected by a relation of linear dependence, then we say that they are linearly dependent. In the opposite case we say that they are linearly independent. If the objects u1, u2,..., un are linearly dependent, then at least one of them is a linear combination of the others, that is,

ui = α1u1 + ... + αi - 1ui-1 + αi + 1ui + 1 + ... + αnun

Continuous functions of one variable

u1 = ϕ1(x), u2 = ϕ2(x), . . ., un = ϕn (x)

are said to be linearly dependent if they are connected by a relation of the form (*), in which the equality sign is understood as an identity in x. In order for the functions Φ1(x), Φ2(x), . . ., Φn(x) defined on an interval axb to be linearly dependent, it is necessary and sufficient that their Gramian vanish, the Gramian in this case being the determinant


However, if the functions Φ1(x), Φ2(x),..., Φn(x) are solutions of a linear differential equation, then they are linearly dependent if and only if their Wronskian vanishes at at least one point.

Linear forms in M variables

ui = ai 1x1 + ai 2x2 + ... + aimxmi = 1, 2,..., n

are said to be linearly dependent if they are connected by a relation of the form (*), in which the equality sign is understood as an identity in all the variables x1, x2,..., xm. In order for n linear forms in n variables to be linearly dependent, it is necessary and sufficient that the following determinant vanish:

References in periodicals archive ?
Our experiments showed that the linear dependence of the self-heating temperature of the PZT ceramic samples (and, hence, the power of heat losses) on the electric field frequency is observed only at low-frequency region.
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Usually, the nearer to one the absolute value of [mathematical expression not reproducible] approximates, the more serious the linear dependence between [x.
Empirical results suggest: 1) that each of the analyzed series of stock index and oil returns can be adequately described with the proposed AR (1)-TGARCH model; 2) that a leverage effect exists in the stock index returns and in oil returns: volatility increases when returns fall; 3) that there is linear dependence between the stock index and oil returns, as indicated by the correlation coefficient (36% with MECOB and 25% with BRENT), and a small degree of concordance, as shown by Kendall's [tau] (tau); 4) that there is a small degree of conditional dependence in the lower tail and significant degree of conditional dependence on the upper (right) tail.
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Over the years 1990-2009, based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, a strong linear dependence was proven in the extent of social protection expenditures on family policy, and the HDI in Australia, Canada, Japan, the USA and Mexico.
The calculated reaction enthalpies of the substituted ferulic acids have linear dependences with Hammett constants and EHOMO that can be utilized in the selection of suitable substituents for the synthesis of novel antioxidants based on ferulic acid.
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The linear dependence of this model has been presented in the following Figure 1.
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