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a piece of cast metal obtained from a mould in a form suitable for storage, transporting, and further use
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a cast metal blank intended for further processing by some method of plastic deformation (rolling, forging, or extrusion), by remelting (molding or alloying), or by electrolysis (in which the anodes are of blister copper or nickel). Ingots are obtained by pouring molten metal into molds with comparatively simple shapes, by continuous casting, and by filling water-cooled crystallizers (electroslag remelting and remelting in arc vacuum furnaces).

Ingots cast in molds and intended for subsequent pressure shaping usually have the form of a truncated pyramid or truncated cone. If a metal crystallizes with a shrinkage, as is the case with killed steel, the ingot will contain a head, which usually contains a contraction cavity. During subsequent conversion, the head is cut off and routed for remelting. Rimmed steel solidifies without forming a contraction cavity, and the ingots thus do not have a head.

Ingots cast by continuous casting methods have the shape of a prism with a square, rectangular, or polygonal cross section or the shape of a cylinder. Ingots are sometimes cast in more complex shapes, for example, hollow shapes. A comparatively small contraction cavity is located in the upper part of continuously cast ingots. This part is separated when the blanks are cut to measured lengths. In ingots obtained by electroslag and arc vacuum remelting, the contraction cavity is much smaller. This is caused by the lowering of the filling speed during the final stage of ingot formation.

The weight of ingots destined for pressure shaping ranges from several kilograms to more than 250 tons. The most widely used ingots weigh 0.5 to 20 tons.

Pig iron ingots and ingots of certain nonferrous metals destined for remelting are usually in the shape of small, strongly tapered, truncated pyramids called pigs, whose weight, as a rule, does not exceed 30–40 kg. Other ingot shapes include bars (copper) and billets of various shapes.

Since the conditions for crystallization of a metal change substantially during solidification, the structure and chemical composition of ingots are nonhomogeneous. The larger the ingot, the more pronounced is the chemical and structural nonho-mogeneity. Ingots obtained by continuous casting or by filling a crystallizer are much more homogeneous than ingots cast in molds.


Metallurgiia stali. Edited by V. I. Iavoiskii and G. N. Oiks. Moscow, 1973.
Kurdiumov, A. V., M. V. Pikunov, and V. M. Chursin. Liteinoe proizvodstvo tsvetnykh i redkikh metallov. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A solid metal casting suitable for remelting or working.
A bar of gold or silver.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A mass of molten metal which has been poured into a mold to solidify; it differs from a casting in that it requires rolling or forging to become a finished or semifinished product.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

silicon ingot

A salami-shaped bar of silicon, which is a single crystal, technically known as a "boule." The ingot is the first step in chip making. High-speed saws slice the ingot into "wafers" about the thickness of a dime, which are then ground and polished mirror smooth. The surfaces of the wafer are etched to form all the transistors on all the chips at the same time. The final step is to cut apart the chips and place them into their packages. See wafer, chip package and transistor.

Drawing the Silicon Ingot
An ingot is being drawn from a furnace containing molten silicon. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)

An Ingot Plant
At a Silicon Valley Microelectronics plant, the ingots are "grown" in these cylinders. SVM makes the ingots and slices them into wafers for their customers. (Image courtesy of Silicon Valley Microelectronics, Inc.,

The Pulled Ingot
This is a finished ingot ready for slicing into wafers. (Image courtesy of Silicon Valley Microelectronics, Inc.,
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References in periodicals archive ?
Durant les operations de coulee de l'aluminium, entre le moment ou le metal sort des cuves d'electrolyse (ou des fours de refonte) et celui ou l'alliage est refroidi en lingots de formes appropriees, trois parametres font l'objet d'une attention particuliere, soit: A) la composition chimique de l'alliage (et, en particulier, la teneur en elements alcalins, tels le lithium et le sodium); B) la tenuer en inclusions non metalliques; C) la tenuer en hydrogene dissous.
Une lourde vaisselle en argent, un tableau en or et argent, de l'or en lingots, en monnaies et en anneaux, deux diamants et un gros saphir.
348: dans son etude sur "l'argent," l'auteur ne mentionne ni les lingots au nom de Barrakib, ni le probleme des poids-etalons inscrits arameens.
Conscient des retombees environnementales de cette unite, qui produit le zinc en lingots, l'acide sulfurique et le cuivre cathode (56.000 tonnes par an), le wali Saci Ahmed Abdelahafid a exige plus de rigueur pour remedier a la situation en etablissant un programme d'urgence.
NB: Recipe from Dessert For Two by Christine Lane ([euro]25.40, Countryman) Notebook 31 Gianduja or smooth & Creamy linGots noisettes Pretty gold-sheathed mouthfuls made from finely ground praline and hazelnuts, with just the right amount of chocolate.
(1975): "Les lingots d'etain de l'epave Port-Vendres II", Gallia, 33, pp.
Elle produit 36% de sucre en pains, en lingots ou en granule de la production nationale.