Linguistic Norm

Norm, Linguistic

 

the historically determined aggregate of linguistic means in common use in a given language; also, the rules governing the choice and use of such means—rules that have become generally accepted by a specific linguistic community during a specific historical period. The linguistic norm is one of the essential characteristics of a language, ensuring its functioning and historical continuity.

Literary norms represent a special kind of linguistic norm. They become established during the evolution of a literary language in the course of national development. The specific features of the norms of a developed literary language are the relative stability and unity of linguistic means and their rich functional and stylistic differentiation. The orthographic and grammatical norms of a literary language are usually marked by considerable stability, while the lexicon permits great freedom of usage. On the whole, an established literary norm does not exclude the variation of individual linguistic means, but in the standardized national language, variants usually fulfill various stylistic functions.

The formation and subsequent evolution of literary norms are determined by both spontaneous and conscious normalization processes. An important role in the establishment, maintenance, and dissemination of literary norms is played by literature, school, the theater, and especially by radio, television, the press, and other mass media.

The literary norm is recorded in normative grammars and dictionaries, which are periodically revised in conformity with changes in the language itself and in society’s evaluation of its means.

REFERENCES

Itskovich, V. A. Iazykovaia norma. Moscow, 1968.
Havránek, “Zum Problem der Norm in der heutigen Sprachwissenschaft und Sprachkultur.” In A Prague School Reader in Linguistics. Bloom-ington, Ind., 1964.

N. N. SEMENIUK

References in periodicals archive ?
Although the reshaping of literature in English by writers outside of the linguistic norm is not a new feature, Doloughan's work foregrounds what this transformation looks like in contemporary literature, and how new kinds of writers are involved--something which is of great interest for research today.
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In this case, it would be necessary to distinguish two types of intra-generational L1 attrition: (1)attrition in isolated immigrants who never use the L1 in the host country, which mainly yields processing difficulties and problems in lexical retrieval; and (2) attrition in members of immigrant communities where changes of the linguistic norm within the community can take place, resulting in modifications of linguistic competence.
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16 17 and 18) Roy not only decolonizes the linguistic norms of the colonial language and its discursive practices but also simultaneously installs the lexical and semantic norms of Malayalam language.