Linguistic Norm

Norm, Linguistic


the historically determined aggregate of linguistic means in common use in a given language; also, the rules governing the choice and use of such means—rules that have become generally accepted by a specific linguistic community during a specific historical period. The linguistic norm is one of the essential characteristics of a language, ensuring its functioning and historical continuity.

Literary norms represent a special kind of linguistic norm. They become established during the evolution of a literary language in the course of national development. The specific features of the norms of a developed literary language are the relative stability and unity of linguistic means and their rich functional and stylistic differentiation. The orthographic and grammatical norms of a literary language are usually marked by considerable stability, while the lexicon permits great freedom of usage. On the whole, an established literary norm does not exclude the variation of individual linguistic means, but in the standardized national language, variants usually fulfill various stylistic functions.

The formation and subsequent evolution of literary norms are determined by both spontaneous and conscious normalization processes. An important role in the establishment, maintenance, and dissemination of literary norms is played by literature, school, the theater, and especially by radio, television, the press, and other mass media.

The literary norm is recorded in normative grammars and dictionaries, which are periodically revised in conformity with changes in the language itself and in society’s evaluation of its means.


Itskovich, V. A. Iazykovaia norma. Moscow, 1968.
Havránek, “Zum Problem der Norm in der heutigen Sprachwissenschaft und Sprachkultur.” In A Prague School Reader in Linguistics. Bloom-ington, Ind., 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Although the reshaping of literature in English by writers outside of the linguistic norm is not a new feature, Doloughan's work foregrounds what this transformation looks like in contemporary literature, and how new kinds of writers are involved--something which is of great interest for research today.
Major obstacles to achieving high levels of reliability (and by extension validity) of error annotation of learner corpora range from defining errors in general, the lack of an error taxonomy sufficiently applicable in corpus annotation, insufficiencies of any set linguistic norm as background for tagging, to the lack of well-defined measurements of quality of annotation.
If we take into consideration the relations between linguistic units there are two basic situations, when the language norm (or the usage norm) is predominantly observed, and when the norm of artistic expression prevails, transcending the linguistic norm.
As shown in this conversation, unconventional speech styles (neutral and masculine forms) appear to be the linguistic norm for female teenage characters.
Speakers who deviate from the local linguistic norm are in some cases socially powerful and/or ambitious and wish to live somewhere else.
In this case, it would be necessary to distinguish two types of intra-generational L1 attrition: (1)attrition in isolated immigrants who never use the L1 in the host country, which mainly yields processing difficulties and problems in lexical retrieval; and (2) attrition in members of immigrant communities where changes of the linguistic norm within the community can take place, resulting in modifications of linguistic competence.
It is argued, however, that a modest pragmatic analysis of linguistic norms is defensible, and can illuminate the nature of communication without abandoning a biopsychological perspective.
Deviations are violations of linguistic norms grammatical or semantic.
At any rate, just as we were never explicitly taught most linguistic norms, which are obvious fabrications, we need not be explicitly taught the conventions that sustain our local customs.
of Oregon) explores both the worlds of Sinophone (Chinese-influenced) and Malaysian literature, pointing out the similarities and differences; in doing so, she finds the roots of cultural and linguistic norms in Sinophone Malaysian culture.
In the space of electronic communication, literacy that generated the asymmetry of linguistic norms of oral and written communication seems to be losing of its power and the prestige of the identity-strengthening ways of usage characterizing small communities and group grows.
16 17 and 18) Roy not only decolonizes the linguistic norms of the colonial language and its discursive practices but also simultaneously installs the lexical and semantic norms of Malayalam language.